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Review

Engineered Nanotechnology: An Effective Therapeutic Platform for the Chronic Cutaneous Wound

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Department of Biotechnology, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, Nadia 741249, India
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Department of Biotechnology, University of Engineering & Management, Kolkata 700156, India
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Department of Life Sciences, Sharda University, Noida 201310, India
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Department of Food Processing Technology, Malda Polytechnic, West Bengal State Council of Technical Education, Government of West Bengal, Malda 732102, India
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NatNov Bioscience Private Limited, Balasore 756001, India
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Skills Innovation & Academic Network (SIAN) Institute, Association for Biodiversity Conservation & Research (ABC), Balasore 756001, India
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Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, 999 Phutthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand
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School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Malaysia
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Department of Agricultural Science, Faculty of Agro-Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli 17600, Malaysia
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Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rosalia Bertorelli and Maria Letizia Manca
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050778
Received: 7 December 2021 / Revised: 2 February 2022 / Accepted: 6 February 2022 / Published: 25 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Nanomaterials in Medical Applications)
The healing of chronic wound infections, especially cutaneous wounds, involves a complex cascade of events demanding mutual interaction between immunity and other natural host processes. Wound infections are caused by the consortia of microbial species that keep on proliferating and produce various types of virulence factors that cause the development of chronic infections. The mono- or polymicrobial nature of surface wound infections is best characterized by its ability to form biofilm that renders antimicrobial resistance to commonly administered drugs due to poor biofilm matrix permeability. With an increasing incidence of chronic wound biofilm infections, there is an urgent need for non-conventional antimicrobial approaches, such as developing nanomaterials that have intrinsic antimicrobial-antibiofilm properties modulating the biochemical or biophysical parameters in the wound microenvironment in order to cause disruption and removal of biofilms, such as designing nanomaterials as efficient drug-delivery vehicles carrying antibiotics, bioactive compounds, growth factor antioxidants or stem cells reaching the infection sites and having a distinct mechanism of action in comparison to antibiotics—functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) for better incursion through the biofilm matrix. NPs are thought to act by modulating the microbial colonization and biofilm formation in wounds due to their differential particle size, shape, surface charge and composition through alterations in bacterial cell membrane composition, as well as their conductivity, loss of respiratory activity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitrosation of cysteines of proteins, lipid peroxidation, DNA unwinding and modulation of metabolic pathways. For the treatment of chronic wounds, extensive research is ongoing to explore a variety of nanoplatforms, including metallic and nonmetallic NPs, nanofibers and self-accumulating nanocarriers. As the use of the magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-entrenched pre-designed hydrogel sheet (MPS) is found to enhance wound healing, the bio-nanocomposites consisting of bacterial cellulose and magnetic nanoparticles (magnetite) are now successfully used for the healing of chronic wounds. With the objective of precise targeting, some kinds of “intelligent” nanoparticles are constructed to react according to the required environment, which are later incorporated in the dressings, so that the wound can be treated with nano-impregnated dressing material in situ. For the effective healing of skin wounds, high-expressing, transiently modified stem cells, controlled by nano 3D architectures, have been developed to encourage angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. In order to overcome the challenge of time and dose constraints during drug administration, the approach of combinatorial nano therapy is adopted, whereby AI will help to exploit the full potential of nanomedicine to treat chronic wounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocomposite; nanoparticle; artificial intelligence; chronic wound; biofilm nanocomposite; nanoparticle; artificial intelligence; chronic wound; biofilm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mallick, S.; Nag, M.; Lahiri, D.; Pandit, S.; Sarkar, T.; Pati, S.; Nirmal, N.P.; Edinur, H.A.; Kari, Z.A.; Ahmad Mohd Zain, M.R.; Ray, R.R. Engineered Nanotechnology: An Effective Therapeutic Platform for the Chronic Cutaneous Wound. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 778. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050778

AMA Style

Mallick S, Nag M, Lahiri D, Pandit S, Sarkar T, Pati S, Nirmal NP, Edinur HA, Kari ZA, Ahmad Mohd Zain MR, Ray RR. Engineered Nanotechnology: An Effective Therapeutic Platform for the Chronic Cutaneous Wound. Nanomaterials. 2022; 12(5):778. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050778

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mallick, Suhasini, Moupriya Nag, Dibyajit Lahiri, Soumya Pandit, Tanmay Sarkar, Siddhartha Pati, Nilesh P. Nirmal, Hisham A. Edinur, Zulhisyam A. Kari, Muhammad R. Ahmad Mohd Zain, and Rina R. Ray. 2022. "Engineered Nanotechnology: An Effective Therapeutic Platform for the Chronic Cutaneous Wound" Nanomaterials 12, no. 5: 778. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050778

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