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Open AccessArticle

Plasmonic Metasensors Based on 2D Hybrid Atomically Thin Perovskite Nanomaterials

1
XLIM Research Institute, UMR 7252 CNRS/University of Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges, France
2
Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong 999077, Hong Kong
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071289
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Engineered Plasmonic Nanomaterials)
In this work, we have designed highly sensitive plasmonic metasensors based on atomically thin perovskite nanomaterials with a detection limit up to 10−10 refractive index units (RIU) for the target sample solutions. More importantly, we have improved phase singularity detection with the Goos–Hänchen (GH) effect. The GH shift is known to be closely related to optical phase signal changes; it is much more sensitive and sharp than the phase signal in the plasmonic condition, while the experimental measurement setup is much more compact than that of the commonly used interferometer scheme to exact the phase signals. Here, we have demonstrated that plasmonic sensitivity can reach a record-high value of 1.2862 × 109 µm/RIU with the optimum configurations for the plasmonic metasensors. The phase singularity-induced GH shift is more than three orders of magnitude larger than those achievable in other metamaterial schemes, including Ag/TiO2 hyperbolic multilayer metamaterials (HMMs), metal–insulator–metal (MIM) multilayer waveguides with plasmon-induced transparency (PIT), and metasurface devices with a large phase gradient. GH sensitivity has been improved by more than 106 times with the atomically thin perovskite metasurfaces (1.2862 × 109 µm/RIU) than those without (918.9167 µm/RIU). The atomically thin perovskite nanomaterials with high absorption rates enable precise tuning of the depth of the plasmonic resonance dip. As such, one can optimize the structure to reach near zero-reflection at the resonance angle and the associated sharp phase singularity, which leads to a strongly enhanced GH lateral shift at the sensor interface. By integrating the 2D perovskite nanolayer into a metasurface structure, a strong localized electric field enhancement can be realized and GH sensitivity was further improved to 1.5458 × 109 µm/RIU. We believe that this enhanced electric field together with the significantly improved GH shift would enable single molecular or even submolecular detection for hard-to-identify chemical and biological markers, including single nucleotide mismatch in the DNA sequence, toxic heavy metal ions, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). View Full-Text
Keywords: surface plasmon; optical sensor; 2D materials; plasmonic sensing; differential phase surface plasmon; optical sensor; 2D materials; plasmonic sensing; differential phase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zeng, S.; Liang, G.; Gheno, A.; Vedraine, S.; Ratier, B.; Ho, H.-P.; Yu, N. Plasmonic Metasensors Based on 2D Hybrid Atomically Thin Perovskite Nanomaterials. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1289.

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