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Correction published on 21 March 2018, see J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 26.

Open AccessArticle

Controlled Delivery of Human Cells by Temperature Responsive Microcapsules

Integrative Regenerative Medicine Centre, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, SE58185, Linköping, Sweden
Biosensors and Bioelectronics Centre, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkӧping University, SE58183, Linköping, Sweden
Bone & Joint Research Group, Stem Cells & Regeneration Institute of Developmental Sciences, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 6YD, UK
Regenerative Medicine Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Francesco Puoci
J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6(2), 439-453;
Received: 16 April 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
PDF [930 KB, uploaded 30 March 2018]


Cell therapy is one of the most promising areas within regenerative medicine. However, its full potential is limited by the rapid loss of introduced therapeutic cells before their full effects can be exploited, due in part to anoikis, and in part to the adverse environments often found within the pathologic tissues that the cells have been grafted into. Encapsulation of individual cells has been proposed as a means of increasing cell viability. In this study, we developed a facile, high throughput method for creating temperature responsive microcapsules comprising agarose, gelatin and fibrinogen for delivery and subsequent controlled release of cells. We verified the hypothesis that composite capsules combining agarose and gelatin, which possess different phase transition temperatures from solid to liquid, facilitated the destabilization of the capsules for cell release. Cell encapsulation and controlled release was demonstrated using human fibroblasts as model cells, as well as a therapeutically relevant cell line—human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). While such temperature responsive cell microcapsules promise effective, controlled release of potential therapeutic cells at physiological temperatures, further work will be needed to augment the composition of the microcapsules and optimize the numbers of cells per capsule prior to clinical evaluation. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell encapsulation; microcapsules; hydrogel; cell delivery; temperature responsive; human fibroblast; human umbilical vein endothelial cells cell encapsulation; microcapsules; hydrogel; cell delivery; temperature responsive; human fibroblast; human umbilical vein endothelial cells

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Mak, W.; Olesen, K.; Sivlér, P.; Lee, C.; Moreno-Jimenez, I.; Edin, J.; Courtman, D.; Skog, M.; Griffith, M. Controlled Delivery of Human Cells by Temperature Responsive Microcapsules. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 439-453.

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