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Open AccessArticle

Effects of a Sprinkler on Evacuation Dynamics in Fire

1
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 464-8603, Japan
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Korimoto, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima 890-065, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manfred Krafczyk
Computation 2015, 3(2), 274-284; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation3020274
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Civil Engineering)
A fire in an enclosed space, such as a room in a building, is generally called a compartment fire. To prevent the compartment fire, a sprinkler for first-aid fire-fighting is installed in rooms. However, it is difficult to determine the degree to which smoke generation and the fire spreading will be inhibited when sprinklers are on. In particular, demonstrating evacuation behavior assuming an actual fire is impossible. In this study, we evaluated an effectiveness of the sprinkler by numerical simulations. To consider evacuation dynamics, a real-coded cellular automata (RCA) was used, where we can freely set the direction and velocity of an evacuee based on a floor field model. To consider the situation in the room fire, we used a simulator called Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). Two cases with and without the sprinkler were compared to see the validity of the sprinkler on evacuation dynamics. The effect of smoke and the expansion of the fire-spreading region were discussed. Results show that, since the fire-spreading region disappears when the sprinkler is actuated, the evacuation time decreases. Even though the sprinkler is actuated, the smoke generated at the beginning of a fire diffuses inside the whole room. However, the duration of evacuees being overwhelmed by smoke is less, because the amount of smoke generated by the pyrolysis reaction is much decreased. View Full-Text
Keywords: fire; sprinkler; cellular automata; FDS; evacuation dynamics fire; sprinkler; cellular automata; FDS; evacuation dynamics
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Yamamoto, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Nishiki, S. Effects of a Sprinkler on Evacuation Dynamics in Fire. Computation 2015, 3, 274-284.

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