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Open AccessArticle

Design of IoT-based Cyber–Physical Systems: A Driverless Bulldozer Prototype

Engineering Systems Design Group, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Whyyy ApS, Copenhagen K-1200, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Information 2019, 10(11), 343;
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 November 2019 / Published: 5 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications and Industry 4.0)
From autonomous vehicles to robotics and machinery, organizations are developing autonomous transportation systems in various domains. Strategic incentives point towards a fourth industrial revolution of cyber–physical systems with higher levels of automation and connectivity throughout the Internet of Things (IoT) that interact with the physical world. In the construction and mining sectors, these developments are still at their infancy, and practitioners are interested in autonomous solutions to enhance efficiency and reliability. This paper illustrates the enhanced design of a driverless bulldozer prototype using IoT-based solutions for the remote control and navigation tracking of the mobile machinery. We illustrate the integration of a cloud application, communication protocols and a wireless communication network to control a small-scale bulldozer from a remote workstation. Furthermore, we explain a new tracking functionality of work completion using maps and georeferenced indicators available via a user interface. Finally, we provide a preliminary safety and security risk assessment of the system prototype and propose guidance for application in real-scale machinery. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); mobile machinery; cyber-physical systems Internet of Things (IoT); mobile machinery; cyber-physical systems
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Carreras Guzman, N.H.; Mezovari, A.G. Design of IoT-based Cyber–Physical Systems: A Driverless Bulldozer Prototype. Information 2019, 10, 343.

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