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Religions 2018, 9(9), 278;

The Gendered Space of the “Oriental Vatican”—Zi-ka-wei, the French Jesuits and the Evolution of Papal Diplomacy

Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
College of Humanities and Communications, Shanghai Normal University, No.100 Guilin Rd., Shanghai 200234, China
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religiosity, Secularity and Pluralism in the Global East)
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In a global context, the story of the Jesuit compound in Shanghai, since its establishment by French Jesuits in 1847, reflected not only conflicts between rival powers in Europe but also the fight for their interests in the Eastern world. The female Catholic orders at the east bank of Zi-ka-wei compound provided a unique window approaching the complexity. The Pope, who was stuck without legal status in the Vatican after 1861, was also seeking the chance to save the authority of the Church in the face of questions regarding the extent of his temporal power and the status of Rome in the context of Italian unification. As in the Reformation, a break-through in the east seemed to offer a solution for losses in Europe. However, the Jesuits to the East in the late 19th century were not only troops working and fighting on behalf of the Pope; their identities under the French Protectorate added complexity to an already complicated story involving not just the Church, but the course of world history. Locating the Jesuit-affiliated women and children hospice in the French Concession but outside the Zi-ka-wei compound was a result of how different conflicts played themselves out. View Full-Text
Keywords: Jesuits; French Protectorate; female orders; Zi-ka-wei; Roman Question Jesuits; French Protectorate; female orders; Zi-ka-wei; Roman Question

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Mo, W. The Gendered Space of the “Oriental Vatican”—Zi-ka-wei, the French Jesuits and the Evolution of Papal Diplomacy. Religions 2018, 9, 278.

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