# Literary Fiction or Ancient Astronomical and Meteorological Observations in the Work of Maria Valtorta?

^{1}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. An Unheard-Of Literary Work

## 2. From the EMV Astronomical Data the Determination of Jesus’ Crucifixion Date

## 3. Rainy Days Described in the EMV and Their Dating According to the Astronomical Analysis

## 4. A Meteorological Picture Statistically Coherent with the Current Data of the Holy Land

## 5. Monthly Frequency of Rainy Days

_{i}is given by:

## 6. Is the Holy Land Climate Changed in the Last 2000 Years?

^{2}) and the average number of monthly rainy days (${d}_{R}$). The regression function that minimizes the mean squared error between data and model is given by the parabola:

## 7. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

**Figure A1.**Probability of randomly finding the average number of rainy days for each month, according to the IMS daily rainfall data bank in the years from 1990 to 2015, concerning 184 localities of the Holy Land. Notice that each annual cycle is repeated twice for showing continuity.

## References

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1 | In the quotations of the EMV the first number indicates the chapter, the second number the subdivision of the chapter, both established by the curator of the literary work. |

2 | In her biography Maria Valtorta (Valtorta 1969) writes that mathematics was her “materia paurosa” (frightful subject), p. 74, and moreover, at p. 84, “…la mia capacità matematica si era arenata davanti alle frazioni...Come un mulo caparbio il mio cervello si era rifiutato di proseguire nel calcolo. Non capivo nulla: le lezioni di aritmetica, geometria, computisteria erano un supplizio sterile.” (…my mathematical ability stopped at fractions…As a stubborn mule my brain refused to go on in the calculations. I did not understand anything: arithmetic, geometry, book-keeping were sterile tortures). |

3 | In our studies we have used the free software Skychart (http://www.ap-i.net/skychart/), released under the terms of the GNU General Public License, developed by Patrick Chevalley. |

4 | “It is a stormy day and a storm is impending” (EMV 92.1): Thursday 2 August 31; “Jesus goes into the kitchen garden, which looks as if it has been washed by the storm of the previous evening” (EMV 93.1)…“Peter says: «This is Friday... Master, tomorrow is the Sabbath»” (EMV 93.3): Friday 3 August 31. |

5 | “It must have rained during the night, one of the first rains of the dreary winter months” (EMV 109.1) … “Towards evening, a military Roman wagon catches up with them. … The two soldiers stop; from under the cover pulled over the wagon, as it has started raining” (EMV 109.13): 4–5 October 31. The latitude and longitude are those of Kyriat Tivon. |

6 | “It’s raining, Master” (EMV 110.4): Friday 12 October 31. The considered latitude and longitude are those of Hatzor. |

7 | “Jesus’ voice resounds in the large room crowded with people; it is in fact raining” (EMV 120.1): third decade of November 31. The latitude and longitude are those of Niran. |

8 | “in a heavy shower of rain which is getting heavier” (EMV 123.2): third decade of November 31; “It is raining in torrents” (EMV 124.1): second consecutive rainy day; “it is still raining ” (EMV 125.1): third consecutive rainy day. |

9 | “It is a rainy day” (EMV 137.1): Sunday 6 January 32. |

10 | “Because of the storm of a few days ago” (EMV 180.7): 10–12 March 32. |

11 | “The storm rages more and more furiously” (EMV 185.3): 23–24 March 32. |

12 | “A heavy shower during the night has made the road somewhat muddy” (EMV 193.1): Wednesday 2 April 32. |

13 | “It is raining” (EMV 195.1): Friday 4 April 32. |

14 | “the rain starts” (EMV 238.1): Friday 11 July 32. |

15 | “the recent storm has washed them” (EMV 244.1): 17–18 July 32. |

16 | “it is preparing a storm” (EMV 274.2): Monday 15 September 32. The latitude and longitude are those of Ginosar. |

17 | “Long live the rain! It helped also to keep You in my house for five days” (EMV 296.1): from Friday 7 to Tuesday 11 November 32; “He has been coming for three days to this place with the donkeys, always in the rain” (EMV 296.6): from Monday 10 to Wednesday 12 November 32; rainy days: Friday; Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday; the Saturday has not been described in the literacy work; therefore we cannot know if it has been a rainy day. Thus the consecutive rainy days are at least four. The latitude and longitude are those of Irbid. |

18 | “a dull wet day” (EMV 298.1): Sunday 16 November 32. |

19 | “Rain, rain, rain …” (EMV 302.1): Friday 28 November 32; “in search of the warm sun after the stormy days” (EMV 305.1): Friday 5 December 32; Maria Valtorta indicates “stormy days”; we can assume at least three consecutive rainy days. |

20 | “It is a wet winter morning” (EMV 312.1): Sunday 28 December 32; “in the ice-cold rain of a winter night” (EMV 314.9): Mon 29 December 32; “tormented by cold wet weather” (EMV 316.1): Wednesday 31 December 32. Two consecutive rainy days separated by another one by a day without rain (cf. EMV 315). The latitude and longitude are those of Nazareth and Iblin. |

21 | “It’s beginning to rain” (EMV 318.4): Thursday 1 January 33. |

22 | “Never seen a storm like this” (EMV 320.2): Saturday 3 January 33; this data has not considered in the statistical analysis since Cyprus does not belong to The Holy Land. |

23 | “The recent hailstorms have destroyed strips of the country” (EMV 332.5): Sunday 25 January 33; the latitude and longitude are those of Rosh Hanikra. |

24 | “The first drops of rain fall” (EMV 358.10): Monday 16 March 33 at Pella; “The elm-tree is slippery because of the rain” (EMV 359.2): Tuesday 17 March 33 at Jabesh-Gilead. |

25 | “Who foresaw all this rain?” (EMV 360.2): Thursday 19 March 33. |

26 | “They walk all night in changeable weather, in fitful showers.” (EMV 361.10): Sunday 22 March 33. |

27 | “A deluge of rain and hailstones falls upon the area” (EMV 42.68): Thursday 18 June 33; “It must have continued to rain all the previous day and during the night” (EMV 429.1): Friday 19 June 33; “the branches still dripping, as is usual after a storm” (EMV 430.1): Saturday 20 June 33; thus, there have been three consecutive rainy days. |

28 | “Jesus arrives at Tiberias with His apostles on a stormy morning” (EMV 445.1): Wednesday 2 September 33. |

29 | “Jesus goes outside, heedless of the storm” (EMV 459.2): Friday 11 September 33. |

30 | “The country which is wet after the shower. It must have rained only recently” (EMV 478.1): Thursday 24 September 33 at Nazareth; “it is going to rain” (EMV 480.3): Friday 25 September 33; “Don’t you see how wet and tired He is?” (EMV 481.3): Friday 25 September 33 at Engannim; the latitude and longitude are those of Jenin, two consecutive rainy days. |

31 | “A real tornado under a frightening sky” (EMV 489.7): Sunday 4 October 33; the latitude and longitude are those of Jerusalem. |

32 | “It is raining” (EMV 504.2): Tuesday 27 October 33. |

33 | “Because it has rained” (EMV 514.1): Friday 6 November 33. |

34 | “After a Sabbath and two wet days” (EMV 530.3): 22–23 November 33. |

35 | “The sound of the wind is joined by the fall of rain that patters” (EMV 561): winter of year 33; the latitude and longitude are those of Jifna. |

36 | “Rain must have drizzled during the night” (EMV 576.1): spring of year 34; the latitude and longitude are those of Jericho. |

37 | “Here is the rain” (EMV 581.8): Thursday 15 April 34; “It has stopped raining” (EMV 583.18): Fri 16 Apr 34; the latitude and longitude are those of Jerusalem. |

38 | “This stormy day” (EMV 608.10): Friday 23 April 34. |

**Figure 1.**Localities of the Holy Land allegedly visited by Jesus in days with rain according to the EMV. Scale: 1 cm=10 km.

**Figure 2.**Annual average value of the rainy period for 184 localities of the Holy Land versus longitude (a) and latitude (b), from 1990 to 2015, according to the IMS. Explicitly indicated are the values of Jerusalem (J), Tel Aviv (T), Haifa University (HU), Nazareth (N), Malkiya (M), Kalya (K).

**Figure 3.**Annual average value of rainy days for 184 localities of the Holy Land versus longitude (a) and latitude (b) from 1990 to 2015, according to the IMS. Triangles refer to the average value versus the average longitude or latitude and ±1 standard deviation of these parameters. Squares refer to the value obtained from the EMV (49) for the average longitude or latitude and ±1 standard deviation of these parameters for the 159 localities with latitude > 31.5° (minimum latitude of the localities of Table 3). Explicitly indicated are the values of Jerusalem (J), Tel Aviv (T), Haifa University (HU), Nazareth (N), Malkiya (M), Kalya (K).

**Figure 4.**Annual average value of rainy couples of 184 localities of the Holy Land versus longitude (a) and latitude (b) from 1990 to 2015, according to the IMS. Triangles refer to the average value versus the average longitude or latitude and ± 1 standard deviation of these parameters. Squares refer to the value obtained from the EMV (38.4) for the average longitude or latitude and ± 1 standard deviation of these parameters for the 159 localities with latitude > 31.5° (minimum latitude of the localities of Table 3). Explicitly indicated are the values of Jerusalem (J), Tel Aviv (T), Haifa University (HU), Nazareth (N), Malkiya (M), Kalya (K).

**Figure 5.**(a): average value and ± 1 standard deviation of the monthly rainy days concerning 184 localities of the Holy Land in the years 1990–2015, from January (1) to December (12). (b): standard deviation. Notice that each annual cycle is repeated twice for showing continuity.

**Figure 6.**Monthly average value of the rainy days for about 26 years (1990–2015) relative to 184 localities of the Holy Land (curve IMS, circles), or for 3 years and only 380 days (according to Table 4) (curve IMS EMV, diamonds), Equation (4), from the IMS data bank. The curve labeled EMV (squares) shows the number of monthly days obtained from the EMV, Equation (8). Notice that each annual cycle is repeated twice for showing continuity.

**Figure 7.**Time series of the number of the rainy days occurred in Jerusalem in the month of December, from 1862 to 2014 (153 years). The smoother (red) curve is the result of filtering the original time series by cancelling the components with period less than 10 years. For rainy days the average value is 52.7 days, the standard deviation is 11.9 days.

**Figure 8.**Time series of the number of the rainy days (a) and total quantity of precipitated water (b) expressed in cm of height for a surface of 1 m

^{2}, in Jerusalem in the month of December, from 1862 to 2014 (153 years). The smoother (red) curves are the results of filtering the original time series by cancelling the components with period less than 10 years. For rainy days the average value is 9.5 days, the standard deviation is 3.8 days. For water, the average value is 10.8 cm with standard deviation 7.8 cm, i.e., 72% of the average.

**Figure 9.**Scatterplot between the number of rainy days and the total quantity of precipitated water expressed in cm of height for a surface of 1 m

^{2}, in Jerusalem in the month of December, from 1862 to 2014 (153 years). The average number of rainy days is 9.5, the standard deviation 3.8 days; the average quantity of water is 10.8 cm with standard deviation 7.8 cm, i.e., 72% of the average. The correlation coefficient is 0.67.

**Figure 10.**Scatterplot between the number of the monthly average quantity of precipitated water expressed in cm of height for a surface of 1 m

^{2}and the average number of monthly rainy days concerning 184 localities of the Holy Land, for each month in the years from 1990 to 2015. The regression line is the parabola given by (10).

**Figure 11.**(a): scatterplot of the difference between the monthly average quantity of precipitated water of Figure 10 and the regression curve (10), named Delta Water, and the average number of monthly rainy days concerning 184 localities of the Holy Land, for each month in the years from 1990 to 2015. (b): scatterplot of the same quantities but with the difference given in percent (%) of the value of the parabolic regression curve (10).

**Table 1.**Reconstruction of the days of Nisan for the years 29–34. Saturdays are indicated by gray boxes. The “E” indicates the embolismic years of 13 months.

Nisan (Days) | Moon Phase | 29 | 30 | 31 E | 32 | 33 | 34 E |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 5apr | 25mar | 13apr | 1apr | 21mar | 10apr | |

2 | 6apr | 26mar | 14apr | 2apr | 22mar | 11apr | |

3 | 5apr | 27mar | 15apr | 3apr | 23mar | 12apr | |

4 | 8apr | 28mar | 16apr | 4apr | 24mar | 13apr | |

5 | 9apr | 29mar | 17apr | 5apr | 25mar | 14apr | |

6 | 10apr | 30mar | 18apr | 6apr | 26mar | 15apr | |

7 | 11apr | 31mar | 19apr | 7apr | 27mar | 16apr | |

8 | 12apr | 1apr | 20apr | 8apr | 28mar | 17apr | |

9 | 13apr | 2apr | 21apr | 9apr | 29mar | 18apr | |

10 | 14apr | 3apr | 22apr | 10apr | 30mar | 19apr | |

11 | 15apr | 4apr | 23apr | 11apr | 31mar | 20apr | |

12 | 16apr | 5apr | 24apr | 12apr | 1apr | 21apr | |

13 | 17apr | 6apr | 25apr | 13apr | 2apr | 22apr | |

14 | 18apr | 7apr | 26apr | 14apr | 3apr | 23apr | |

15 (Easter) | 19apr | 8apr | 27apr | 15apr | 4apr | 24apr | |

16 | 20apr | 9apr | 28apr | 16apr | 5apr | 25apr | |

17 | 21apr | 10apr | 29apr | 17apr | 6apr | 26apr | |

18 | 22apr | 11apr | 30apr | 18apr | 7apr | 27apr | |

19 | 23apr | 12apr | 1may | 19apr | 8apr | 28apr | |

20 | 24apr | 13apr | 2may | 20apr | 9apr | 29apr | |

21 | 25apr | 14apr | 3may | 21apr | 10apr | 30apr | |

22 | 26apr | 15apr | 4may | 22apr | 11apr | 1may | |

23 | 27apr | 16apr | 5may | 23apr | 12apr | 2may | |

24 | 28apr | 17apr | 6may | 24apr | 13apr | 3may | |

25 | 29apr | 18apr | 7may | 25apr | 14apr | 4may | |

26 | 30apr | 19apr | 8may | 26apr | 15apr | 5may | |

27 | 1may | 20apr | 9may | 27apr | 16apr | 6may | |

28 | 2may | 21apr | 10may | 28apr | 17apr | 7may | |

29 | 3may | 22apr | 11may | 29apr | 18apr | 8may | |

30 | 4may | 23apr | 19apr |

**Table 2.**Number of rainy days described in the years of Jesus’ public life, as they are deduced by the astronomical analysis of the EMV for each year and total period. Key: 75/366 means 75 days described out of 366 of Jesus’ public life in year I; 9/75 means 9 rainy days out of 75, etc. The four numbers in a row reported for each year refer to spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively, with seasons starting conventionally at the equinoxes and solstices.

EMV | Year I | II | III | Final Months | Total Period |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

6 January 31 | 9 January 32 | 28 December 32 | 18 December 33 | 6 January 31 | |

7 January 32 | 27 December 32 | 17 December 33 | 23 April 34 | 23 April 34 | |

Described Days | 75/366 | 115/354 | 150/354 | 40/126 | 380/1204 |

15 + 30 + 20 + 10 | 35 + 25 + 25 + 30 | 35 + 35 + 35 + 45 | 20 + 0 + 5 + 15 | 105 + 90 + 85 + 100 | |

Rainy Days | 9/75 | 16/115 | 22/150 | 5/40 | 52/380 |

0 + 1 + 7 + 1 | 3 + 3 + 9 + 1 | 3 + 2 + 7 + 10 | 4 + 0 + 0 + 1 | 10 + 6 + 23 + 13 |

**Table 3.**Locality (latitude, longitude) where rain is reported according to the EMV in the years of Jesus’ public life, divided by year of Jesus’ public life. For each locality the first integers give the number of single or sequence of successive rainy days.

I year (6 January 31–7 January 32) |

1, Nazareth (32.73, 35.27);4 2, Esdraelon (32.71, 35.13);5 1, Meron (32.99, 35.54);6 1, Clear Water (31.97, 35.73);7 3, Clear Water (31.97, 35.73); 8 1, Clear Water (31.97, 35.73).9 |

II year (9 January 32–27 January 32) |

1, Bethsaida (32.88, 35.28);10 1, Ippo (32.78, 35.66);11 1, Sichem (32.23, 35.26);12 1, Jerusalem (31.78, 35.22);13 1, Capernaum (32.88, 35.58); 14 1, Cana-Nazareth (32.75, 35.59; 32.73, 35.27);15 1, Gennesaret (32.85, 35.52);16 4 + 1, Arbela (32.55, 35.85);17 1, Meron (32.99, 35.54);18 3, Magdala (32.84, 35.50).19 III year (28 December 32–17 December 33) |

2 + 1, Nazareth and Jiphthahel (32.73, 35.27; 32.83, 35.39);20 1, Ptolemais (32.82, 35.09);21 1, Cyprus;22 1, Achziv (33.09, 35.11);23 2, Pella and Jabesh-Gilead (32.45, 35.61);24 1, Bethabara (31.84, 35.55);25 1, Bethabara (31.84, 35.55);26 3, Esdraelon (32.71, 35.13);27 1, Tiberias (32.78, 35.53);28 1, Capernaum;29 2, Nazareth-Engannim (32.73, 35.27; 32.46, 35.30);30 1, Nob;31 1, Betanhy beyond the Jordan; 32 1, Bet Horon (31.88, 35.40);33 2, Nob.34 |

Final months (18 December 33–23 April 34) |

1, Gofena (31.96, 35.22);35 1, Doco (31.86, 35.46);36 2, Betanhy (31.78, 35.22);37 1, Jerusalem (31.78, 35.22).38 |

January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

21 | 32 | 43 | 62 | 33 | 18 | 37 | 19 | 26 | 30 | 35 | 24 |

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Matricciani, E.; De Caro, L.
Literary Fiction or Ancient Astronomical and Meteorological Observations in the Work of Maria Valtorta? *Religions* **2017**, *8*, 110.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8060110

**AMA Style**

Matricciani E, De Caro L.
Literary Fiction or Ancient Astronomical and Meteorological Observations in the Work of Maria Valtorta? *Religions*. 2017; 8(6):110.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8060110

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Matricciani, Emilio, and Liberato De Caro.
2017. "Literary Fiction or Ancient Astronomical and Meteorological Observations in the Work of Maria Valtorta?" *Religions* 8, no. 6: 110.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8060110