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Religions 2017, 8(2), 30;

Reformation Leads to Self-Reliance: The Protestantism of Transcendentalism

Department of Language and Literature, Sterling College, 125 W Cooper Ave, Sterling, KS 67579, USA
Academic Editor: Christopher Metress
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 21 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teaching the Reformations)
Full-Text   |   PDF [203 KB, uploaded 21 February 2017]


This article examines connections between the Protestant Reformation and American literature and argues that Protestantism’s best expression exists in contemporary iterations of self-reliance. The first part focuses on William Ellery Channing’s and Ralph Waldo Emerson’s literary criticism of John Milton, a poet who represents the Protestant ideals these writers combine with American principles to develop the literary tradition. The second part discusses the trajectory of American literature in the nineteenth century and extends this discussion to current assumptions regarding teaching and learning. View Full-Text
Keywords: Protestantism; transcendentalism; self-reliance; Milton; Channing; Emerson Protestantism; transcendentalism; self-reliance; Milton; Channing; Emerson
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Griffis, R.B. Reformation Leads to Self-Reliance: The Protestantism of Transcendentalism. Religions 2017, 8, 30.

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