A Feasibility Study of Taste & See: A Church Based Programme to Develop a Healthy Relationship with Food
- To determine how feasible it is to evaluate Taste & See within a UK church setting in preparation for developing a randomised controlled trial (RCT).
- To investigate change in physical, psychological and spiritual well-being in participants pre- and post-programme, and at six-month follow-up.
- To assess change in eating behaviour, nutritional intake and physical activity pre- and post-programme, and at six-month follow-up.
- To explore participant acceptability (fully reported elsewhere) and the facilitators’ experiences in delivering the intervention.
“Of our 18 participants, 15 participants had a BMI greater than 25 kg/m2 with mean (SD) UE, CR, EE scores of 57 (19), 29 (20), and 67 (23) respectively. Three participants had a BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2 with mean UE, CR, EE scores of 50 (20), 50 (28) and 43 (19) respectively.”
4.5. Ethical Approval
- Scientific content of evidence-based dietetic practice,
- Activities designed for discussion in small groups of 3–4 participants to consider the application of these dietetic principles in their own lives,
- Biblical view on the issues raised,
- Opportunity, without obligation, to respond individually to spiritual content if participants wish to do so,
- Activity for the week to practice making health behaviour changes,
- Daily Bible reading and prayer material for those who want to engage with this.
- Anthropometric measures of height, weight, BMI, percentage body fat and blood pressure,
- Health-Related Quality of Life was measured by the five dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression) and the Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale (QoL-VAS) as measured by the European Quality of Life-5-Dimensions-5-Levels (EQ-5D-5L) .
- Physical activity as measured by the Stanford seven-day physical activity recall .
- Nutritional intake as measured by a seven-day food diary.
4.8. Sample Size
4.9. Data Analysis
5.1. Participant Retention
5.2. Participant Demographic Details
5.3. Changes in Outcomes from Baseline to End of Intervention
5.4. Sustained and Un-Sustained Changes in Outcomes at Follow-Up
5.5. Facilitator Feasibility and Acceptability
5.5.1. Theme 1: Facilitating the Group Was Not Always Easy
“I think generally it would have been good to have some advice on…what the facilitators were supposed to do, what they were supposed to ask.”[Extract 1, Facilitator 1]
“A little bit more clarity [around] the role you wanted us to play. I think that would have been the most helpful. I mean all the stuff is in the book or hand-outs and we have them in advance and we can read through and understand that stuff, but what do we do with it? How do we actually put it into practice?”[Extract 2, Facilitator 2]
“What were the real objectives in that conversation? Was there a real objective or was it just an open time? If there were objectives, how are we going to get there… how much were we to be just somebody chatting within the group or [how much were we] actually pulling people towards an objective?[Extract 3, Facilitator 2]
“Yeah I was unsure what my role was, whether I’m supposed to be just part of it [and] encourage conversation or actually be the example setter or be the teacher.”[Extract 4, Facilitator 2]
“I think on one week I felt in reflection that I probably should have been more encouraging and practicing it than actually bringing my personal opinion.”[Extract 5, Facilitator 2]
5.5.2. Theme 2: Developing More Thorough Training Resources
“I was just thinking earlier about some difficult people. There was a difficult person in my group who I [found] difficult to manage because they weren’t allowing other people to speak. I really had to put in some more tactics for that group, but perhaps that goes back to the initial facilitators training.”[Extract 6, Facilitator 1]
“I didn’t think people were going to have such massive issues. I thought it was basically well, just stop eating so much…but I’ve discovered it’s more complicated than that.”[Extract 7, Facilitator 1]
“Another thing I was thinking was having advice or information on the sorts of issues people are going to have…I had someone in my group who had eating disorder issues and I didn’t know and I didn’t know what to do about it...”[Extract 8, Facilitator 1]
“What I’m just wary of is going digging, which is what we were doing really and then digging something up that is a lot bigger. [We need to] make sure that [the] person is in a position where they can handle [it, and] take it to a counsellor.”[Extract 9, Facilitator 3]
“I think one of the challenges is staying completely non-judgemental, even if you think you’re [not] judging it’s easy to say something that someone else can then feel they’re being judged.”[Extract 10, Facilitator 3]
5.6. Participants’ Experience and Engagement
6.1. Summary of Results
6.2. Strengths of the Study
6.3. Limitations of the Study
6.4. Consistency of Findings
7. Conclusions and Implications
Conflicts of Interest
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|Session||Scientific Principle||Biblical Principle|
|Session 1: Your Relationship with Food |
To develop an awareness of self, of eating habits and of a God who cares about this.
|The holistic aspects of eating |
The evidence for addressing the spiritual in weight management.
|We are physical and spiritual beings. |
God loves us and wants to be involved in our lives
|Session 2: What dietary rules do you follow? |
To introduce intuitive eating versus dietary restriction.
|The diet and weight regain cycle |
The evidence for finding what approach suits you
The evidence for intuitive eating
|Freedom with responsibility. |
“Everything permissible but not everything is beneficial.”
|Session 3: Are you really hungry? |
To identify hunger and fullness.
|Hormonal regulation of appetite |
What is a healthy diet?
|Created by God. |
A time for everything.
|Session 4: Enjoying food again: |
To feel free to enjoy food.
|Evidence for eating attentively, reducing distractions, mindful eating exercise.||The blessings of God, he loves to give us good gifts|
|Session 5: Why else do we eat? |
To understand impulsive responses to feel happier, to feel less bored, to reduce stress.
|Dopamine pathway||The reality of life in an imperfect world |
Why things went wrong.
|Session 6: What can we do instead? |
To identify ways to tackle boredom, stress and low mood.
|Evidence-based physical activity and relaxation suggestions||Spiritual coping. |
Hope in difficult times.
|Session 7: Leaving the past behind |
To identify past hurts or habits that still influence our relationship with food today, to find healing in forgiveness.
|Evidence of the impact of adverse child events |
Evidence for forgiveness
|‘Forgive us as we forgive others’|
|Session 8: You are loved and you are lovely |
To understand the truth of who you are.
|Body congruence |
Tips to build self-esteem
|God’s love and acceptance|
|Session 9: Moving forward |
To consolidate new attitudes and behaviours, to identify specific aspects of healthy living to work on.
|Goal setting |
Tips and ideas for a healthy lifestyle
|New creation, with God’s spirit at work within us|
|Session 10: Pressing on/The future |
To equip participants to be able to continue the Taste and See principles without weekly support.
|Identifying and planning for lapses |
Evidence for behaviour change maintenance
|Pressing on and managing failure|
|N (% Frequency)|
|BMI category:||Healthy (BMI: 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) and high TFEQ||3 (17)|
|Overweight (BMI: 25–29.9 kg/m2)||4 (22)|
|Obese (BMI: 30–39.9 kg/m2)||8 (44)|
|Morbidly Obese (BMI>40 kg/m2)||3 (17)|
|Spiritual, but not religious||1 (6)|
|Outcomes:||Baseline||3 Months (End of Intervention)||9 Months (6-Month Follow-Up)||Mean Change Baseline—3 Months||SE||95% CI for Mean Difference||Mean Change from 3–9 Months||SE||95% CI for Mean Difference||Mean Change Baseline—9 Months||SE||95% CI for Mean Difference|
|Body Fat (%)||44.3||9.5||41.4||13.8||43.9||9.5||−2.9||2.2||−8.8||3.1||2.6||2.4||−3.9||9.1||−0.3||0.8||−2.5||1.9|
|Body Mass Index||33.11||7.90||32.60||8.00||33.10||8.10||−0.60 *||0.20||−1.10||−0.002||0.6||0.2||−0.1||1.2||0.02||0.20||−0.60||0.60|
|Systolic Blood Pressure||124||16||127||18||123||17||2||3||−5||11||−4||3||−11||4||−1||2||−6||4|
|Diastolic Blood Pressure||81||10||82||10||81||10||1||3||−6||8||−0.6||2||−6||5||0.4||2||−4||5|
|EQ-5D5L: Usual Activities||1.3||0.8||1.3||0.6||1.3||0.7||0.0||0.2||−0.4||0.4||0.0||0.1||−0.2||0.2||0.0||0.1||−0.3||0.3|
|EQ-5D5L: Pain/Discomfort||1.9||0.8||1.6||0.8||1.7||0.8||−0.3 *||0.1||−0.03||−0.6||0.1||0.1||−0.2||0.4||−0.2||0.1||−0.5||0.1|
|EQ-5D5L: QoL-VAS||61.0||19.0||72.0||16.2||68.0||13.5||11.7 *||3.7||1.9||21.6||−4.3||3.2||−12.9||4.3||7.4||3.8||−2.5||17.4|
|TFEQ: Uncontrolled Eating||56.0||18.8||39.5||19.8||42.6||21.5||−16.5 *||3.7||−26.2||−6.7||3.1||3.6||−6.4||12.5||−13.4 *||4.5||−25.3||−1.4|
|TFEQ: Emotional Eating||62.7||23.5||43.2||23.5||45.9||22.6||−19.4 *||3.8||−29.4||−9.5||2.8||4.1||−8.2||13.8||−16.7 *||3.6||−26.3||−7.1|
|TFEQ: Cognitive Restrained Eating||32.4||22.7||43.5||22.5||42.6||18.5||11.1 *||3.8||0.9||21.3||−1||5.5||−16||13||10.2||4.9||−2.7||23.1|
|Intuitive Eating (IE) Total||2.5||0.5||3.1||0.6||2.9||0.6||0.6 *||0.1||0.3||0.9||−0.2||0.1||−0.4||0.2||0.5 *||0.1||0.2||0.8|
|IE: Unconditional Permission to Eat||3.0||0.9||3.2||0.7||3.1||0.6||0.2||0.2||−0.3||0.7||−0.1||0.1||−0.4||0.3||0.1||0.2||−0.5||0.7|
|IE: Reliance on Hunger Cues||2.0||0.8||3||0.9||2.8||1.09||1.1 *||0.2||0.6||1.5||−0.2||0.2||−0.8||0.3||0.8 *||0.2||0.2||1.4|
|IE: Body Food Choice Congruence||3.0||0.9||3.4||0.9||3.4||0.9||0.4||0.2||−0.1||0.9||0.02||0.2||−0.5||0.6||0.4 *||0.1||0.7||0.8|
|WEMBS: Mental Well-Being||45.6||6.1||52.3||5.5||49.4||7.1||6.7 *||1.3||3.4||10.04||−2.8||1.4||−6.5||0.8||3.9 *||1.5||0.01||7.8|
|GAD-7: Anxiety||7.5||4.4||3.3||2.8||5.8||5.5||−4.1 *||0.9||−6.5||−1.6||2.4||1.1||−0.4||5.3||−1.6 *||0.6||−3.2||−0.02|
|PHQ-9: Depression||6.6||5.2||3.6||2.9||5.9||5.1||−3 *||0.9||−5.3||−0.7||2.4||0.9||−0.1||4.8||−0.6||0.9||−2.9||1.8|
|Spiritual Well-Being Scale Total||93.3||15.1||98.1||13.2||96.2||13.7||4.8||2.8||−2.6||12.1||−1.9||2.8||−9.3||5.5||2.9||2.2||−2.9||8.7|
|SWBS: Religious Well-Being||48.9||12.1||49.7||8.2||49.2||10.6||0.8||1.8||−4.03||5.6||−0.5||1.9||−5.4||4.4||0.3||1.2||−2.8||3.4|
|SWBS: Existential Well-Being||44.4||5.7||48.4||5.8||47||6.2||4.0||1.7||−0.4||8.4||−1.4||1.6||−5.7||2.9||2.6||1.5||−1.3||6.5|
|SMILE: Religious Love||17.7||3.6||18.1||2.3||17.9||3.9||0.4||0.5||−0.9||1.7||−0.2||0.6||−1.7||1.3||0.2||0.2||−0.3||0.6|
|Energy Expenditure (Kcal)||3173||711||3079||744||3158||642||−93||43||−208||22||78||68||−101||258||−14||59||−172||143|
|Energy intake (Kcal)||2131||1278||1713||551||2018||1311||−418||370||−1415||580||304.7||383||−728||1337||−112||71||−304||79|
|Energy (-Alcohol) (Kcal)||2150||1271||1711||546||2056||1301||−439||366||−1426||549||345||378||−674||1365||−93||69||−281||94|
|Mono and Disaccharides(g)||88||36||81||35||77||26||−7||4||−17||3||−4||7||−23||14||−11||6||−28||5|
|Saturated Fatty acids (g)||26.8||10.9||24.4||12.6||21.7||7.9||−2.4||2.2||−8.4||3.6||−3||3||−11||6||−5.1||2.1||−10.6||0.4|
|Mono-unsaturated fat (g)||23.4||9.3||21.1||11.6||20.2||8.6||−2.3||2||−7.8||3.1||−1||3||−9||7||−3.2||2.04||−8.7||2.3|
|Poly-unsaturated fat (g)||10.5||3.9||9.6||4.9||10.6||4.2||−0.9||0.8||−3.1||1.3||1||1||−1||4||0.2||0.7||−1.7||2.1|
|Salt Equivalence (g)||4.7||1.2||4.2||1.9||4.6||1.5||−0.6||0.4||−1.5||0.4||0.5||0.4||−0.6||1.5||−0.1||0.3||−0.9||0.7|
|Advice on how to facilitate|
Purpose of facilitation not explained
What should facilitators ask?
Should I keep conversation open?
Should they be encouraging conversation or applying? Intervention tools
Not enough clearness on role Am I the teacher?
|What does the facilitator role entail?||Theme 1: Facilitating was not always easy.|
|Should I be living the programme?|
Example setter or participant?
Brought my own opinion
Still my opinion
Which way is right?
I took what I wanted
|Challenges related to balancing both the roles of facilitator and participant|
|How to manage difficult people|
Dominant people taking over, not letting others speak
Help to make sure everyone can talk
|Support managing difficult and dominant people||Theme 2: Developing more thorough training resources|
|Managing unexpected issues|
Unexpected issues not related to weight
Managing the range of different things
Unexpected spiritual issues
People have real problems
Serious problem, not expecting this
|More advice on the range of issues that can arise|
|Uncertain of role parameters|
How much detail should be pulled out from participants?
Training around group discussion boundaries
Should I try answer all questions?
Should personal opinions be given?
Trying not to judge people
Digging something up
We might not handle it
We’re not equipped to address it
|More advice about boundaries to ensure beneficence|
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Patel, R.; Lycett, D.; Coufopoulos, A.; Turner, A. A Feasibility Study of Taste & See: A Church Based Programme to Develop a Healthy Relationship with Food. Religions 2017, 8, 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8020029
Patel R, Lycett D, Coufopoulos A, Turner A. A Feasibility Study of Taste & See: A Church Based Programme to Develop a Healthy Relationship with Food. Religions. 2017; 8(2):29. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8020029Chicago/Turabian Style
Patel, Riya, Deborah Lycett, Anne Coufopoulos, and Andy Turner. 2017. "A Feasibility Study of Taste & See: A Church Based Programme to Develop a Healthy Relationship with Food" Religions 8, no. 2: 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8020029