Next Article in Journal
Believing Selves and Cognitive Dissonance: Connecting Individual and Society via “Belief”
Next Article in Special Issue
Children’s Spiritual Lives: The Development of a Children’s Spirituality Measure
Previous Article in Journal
Passing through Customs: Merold Westphal, Richard Kearney, and the Methodological Boundaries between Philosophy of Religion and Theology
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bifactor Models of Religious and Spiritual Struggles: Distinct from Religiousness and Distress
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Religions 2016, 7(7), 84;

Exploratory Psychometric Properties of the Farsi and English Versions of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ)

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak 6941-7-38481, Iran
School of Nursing and Midwifery, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
Centre for Postgraduate Nursing Studies, University of Otago, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arndt Büssing
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 28 June 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [208 KB, uploaded 28 June 2016]


The aim of this study was to translate and test the psychometric properties of a Farsi and an English version of the spiritual needs questionnaire (SpNQ) a measure originally developed in German. The World Health Organization guideline for translating and validating questionnaires was used. Participants were recruited from hospitals in Iran and New Zealand during an outpatient follow-up appointment after cancer treatment. People diagnosed with cancer in Iran (68) and New Zealand (54) completed and returned the SpNQ (at time 1) and within the two week time period (time 2). Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.79 to 0.92, except for the existentialistic domain of the SpNQ (0.53–0.54). The coefficient of variation (CV) indicated minimal random variation between the assessments; the measures were generally stable, except for the item “existentialistic”. The translated versions of the SpNQ have the potential to support a comprehensive assessment of cancer patients’ spiritual needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; spiritual care; needs cancer; spiritual care; needs
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nejat, N.; Whitehead, L.; Crowe, M. Exploratory Psychometric Properties of the Farsi and English Versions of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ). Religions 2016, 7, 84.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Religions EISSN 2077-1444 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert Logo copyright Steve Bridenbaugh/UUA
Back to Top