Online Opportunities in Secularizing Societies? Clergy and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Ireland
2. Could the Pandemic Slow or Reverse Secularization?
3. Religion during the Pandemic
3.1. Praying More Than Usual
3.2. Accessing Religious Services
3.3. Wider Perspectives
As someone who has studied how religious communities respond to technology for two and a half decades, I quickly realized that this move marked a unique and important moment for contemporary religion.
5.1. Survey Results
5.2. Provision of Religion Online
The feedback [on online worship] has been heart-warming. The numbers of people we have engaged with online have been frankly astonishing. The opportunities for imaginative liturgy are remarkable.
5.5. Interview Results
5.6. Religion Online as Opportunity
The longer the lockdown’s gone on, the more I’ve felt that we need to do it going forwards. … We’re making far more connections with people than we would if we were solely in-house. … I just think increasingly I’d be mad to throw away an opportunity where you’re reaching people. Is it perfect? No. I go to [Zoom] prayer meetings with other ministers and they’re unsettled about people washing the dishes [while accessing online services] and people telling them this. Ok, it’s not ideal, but people are connecting, people are listening, people are worshiping in some format. We’re constantly saying we want to reach more people: we’re reaching more people in some format. Let’s go with it.
He then related a story of meeting a woman on the street who told him she enjoyed the new online Mass, even though she never went to Mass before the pandemic:It’s a phenomenon which I can’t grasp. I’m told up to 1000 used to come in on this thing for us, you see. Really? What are they doing?
Clergy tried their best to interpret the unexpectedly high numbers accessing services, acknowledging that ‘views’ can be deceptive, because people may not be engaging in depth or staying on for a full service. Some reported a sort of online church tourism, where they were aware of visitors from other parishes/congregations in Ireland or abroad who accessed services, sometimes multiple times on the same day. As a Methodist explained:She said, I love Mass on Facebook. Then she said, I never go to Mass. Online Mass really reached her heart in some way … I think we’re being challenged now to wake up our minds and our imaginations to something different, because the numbers coming to church now are very small. So, it’s an opportunity in many ways.
A Presbyterian had a similar interpretation, although he was more optimistic that online services could attract people ‘on the fringe’:[I think] that it is very largely other Christians dropping in and seeing what we’re doing and appreciating it. I think it’s very optimistic to say there are many, many hundreds of people who aren’t of Christian faith who are actively following what churches are doing. I think people are effectively looking through windows, peeking around the door … I wish it were different, but there’s no clear evidence that there’s hundreds of people looking to join the church.
It’s obviously easier to go online: you can still be in your pyjamas and have your cup of coffee. People were searching to see what’s going on online, then suddenly on a Sunday morning there was an absolute avalanche of stuff and it kept them in touch with something. There’s another interesting question: were people on the fringe so far on the fringe? Maybe they weren’t as far away from the church as we thought.
5.7. Volunteering for Religion Online
A Catholic bishop confirmed this trend:Thanks be to God … [parishioners are] getting away from the idea that the priest is going to do everything. One gentleman stepped forward and just said, listen, we can make our Sunday liturgies really, really, good, and really interactive and really give a good product. I never thought I’d call church ‘product’. But so, we were able to have celebrations [online for the first time].
Interviewees also described how they accessed denominational resources or training for online ministries, shared tips with colleagues, or availed of resources from other organizations such as the Evangelical Alliance.19We’ll see a rise in the number of people who will be involved in this aspect of church life. I mean it’s a position that you could have on your pastoral council in the future, your IT expert would be just as necessary as anything else.
5.8. Misgivings about Religion Online
It’s very rural. A lot of the core members of the church are older and they suspect Facebook of being the great demonic force of the world. So, they wouldn’t be on it. Even if they are online for emails, they wouldn’t go on Facebook for anything.
At the same time, some clergy deliberately chose not to go online. A Presbyterian explained his rationale:Online [the service is] so short, and even then people were complaining that their data was running out. … We experience all these things and we say, I can’t hear you, I’m disconnected. You’ve witnessed it here too.
His thoughts were echoed by a Catholic priest whose parish offered online services, despite his misgivings:My initial thought was: what about the people who don’t have Internet? And people who don’t have the kind of knowledge of technology that a lot of others have? So I wanted to produce paper resources for them, and make sure that we’ve a team of volunteers willing to deliver those. … My second thought was we already have a whole plethora of options online that people can listen to that are better presented, more professionally setup services than anything that we could have done in a rush. … The third reason was more theological and in a sense that no matter how well produced the services online are, it’s not church. While I wanted people to feel still connected with their church family and still involved … I didn’t want them to get too comfortable sitting in their pyjamas at church on Sunday morning.
I still have reservations about kind of language that even Catholic bishops are using: ‘the Mass has gone online …. Because it’s not Mass, any more than looking at somebody eating their dinner online is nourishment. It’s a very, very poor and pale substitute. … When it came up in conversation with colleagues, I used to say the best thing that Facebook streaming can do is keep the hunger alive so that people don’t start to forget.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Individuals, churches or organizations can become members of Evangelical Alliance, which has branches in the Republic and Northern Ireland. Most members are from Protestant denominations and the use of their resources was mentioned by Protestant ministers in Northern Ireland.
With the ‘no religion’ trend increasing, it is possible that in the next Census (scheduled for April 2021 but postponed to 2022 due to the pandemic) more people will choose this option. The Census question about religion also is expected to change in a way that may encourage people to identify according to practice rather than background.
The ‘highly religious’ index combined self-assessment of religion’s importance in one’s life, attendance, frequency of prayer, and belief in God, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/12/05/how-do-european-countries-differ-in-religious-commitment/ (accessed on 7 April 2021).
These are the surveys referenced: The Iona Institute, a Catholic advocacy group based in Dublin, commissioned nationally representative polls, carried out by Amarach Research: April 2020, August 2020, November 2020, March 2021. Results of the polls can be found in press releases at https://ionainstitute.ie/ (accessed on 4 June 2021). Iona also provided me with full results of the polls. Other survey results can be found: Christian Aid, https://mediacentre.christianaid.org.uk/embargo-0900am-sunday-10-may-2020brits-praying-for-end-to-coronavirus-crisis-for-frontline-workers-and-the-worlds-poor-new-poll-reveals/ (accessed on 16 March 2021); Tearfund, https://comresglobal.com/polls/tearfund-covid-19-prayer-public-omnibus-research/ (accessed on 16 March 2021); Catholic Voices/York St John University, https://www.yorksj.ac.uk/media/content-assets/document-directory/documents/CC&Y-survey-initial-report.pdf (accessed on 4 June 2021); Durham University, https://www.dur.ac.uk/resources/digitaltheology/PressReleasereOnlineChurch.pdf (accessed on 4 June 2021); Theos/YouGov, https://www.theosthinktank.co.uk/comment/2020/08/06/religious-trends-in-a-time-of-international-crisis (accessed on 4 June 2021); Dublin City University/Mater Dei Institute, https://www.dcu.ie/materdei-centre-catholic-education/adult-religious-education-and-faith-development-research-project (accessed on 4 June 2021); Scottish churches (carried out by Brendan Research), file:///C:/Users/bango/Downloads/The%20Scottish%20Church%20and%20the%20COVID-19%20Pandemic.pdf (accessed on 4 June 2021).
The Theos poll was nationally representative and included Northern Ireland. I have not included separate results from Northern Ireland because its sample size was just 54.
The March 2021 survey asked, ‘Since the new lockdown began in late December have you watched the Mass or any other religious services online, on TV or listened to it on the radio?’ Churches were open in Ireland over Christmas and limited numbers attended in person, with the ‘new’ lockdown starting just days after Christmas. Some people may have accessed Christmas services online/TV/radio and included this in their response, even if Christmas did not occur during the ‘new’ lockdown. It is impossible to be certain, but this may explain the higher figure.
Campbell’s use of stages has a chronological logic, so my focus on the last two does some violence to her approach. Campbell’s first two stages are gaining understandings of religious communities’ traditions of ‘community, authority, and textual engagement’; and identifying ‘core values’ that influence faith communities’ ‘beliefs about media’ (Campbell 2016, p. 20). As faith communities that moved online during the pandemic consider if or how they will retain online ministries after lockdown, more research should be carried out to understand how the first two stages influence their decisions.
The Irish Council of Churches is the island’s main ecumenical body for Protestant, Orthodox, Reformed and Independent Church traditions. The Irish Inter Church Meeting is an ecumenical structure that facilitates meetings between the Irish Council of Churches and the Irish Catholic Bishops Conference.
This article uses the language of ‘faith leader’ and ‘clergy’. When the language of clergy is used, it refers to ordained Christian clergy. When ‘faith leader’ is used, it refers to the broader categorization described in the text.
For more detail on methods see (Ganiel 2020, pp. 7–8).
The population of the Republic is 4.75 million and the population of Northern Ireland is 1.85 million.
I wish to acknowledge the experiences of people of other faiths. As a Buddhist wrote on the survey: ‘There are not only Catholics and Protestants in Ireland. There are Muslims, Buddhists, Jews, etc, living in Ireland, north and south. That reality needs to be catered for. This time of crisis has highlighted many of the shortcomings of living and dying as a non-Christian in Ireland’.
In the Republic, churches re-opened for public worship in late June 2020. They were closed completely for public worship again after Christmas 2020 until early May 2021, in response to a resurgent virus. In Northern Ireland, churches re-opened in late June 2020. They closed for a two-week period in November 2020 as part of a wider societal effort to stem coronavirus cases, re-opening again until Christmas. They closed again after Christmas until early April 2021, just in time for Good Friday and Easter services. The earlier opening in Northern Ireland reflected a more widespread vaccine roll-out. All re-openings have included restrictions on the numbers that can attend and social distancing measures. In some parishes and congregations, online booking systems for in-person services were put in place.
Byrne and Sweetman’s results should be interpreted cautiously, because the sample was not representative and included just 124 clergy.
For ease of comprehension, choices from the survey have been combined. For example, ‘Me, other paid staff and volunteers’ includes the categories of ‘Me and other paid staff’, ‘Me and volunteers’, and ‘Me, other paid staff and volunteers’. ‘Other paid staff and volunteers’ includes the categories of ‘other paid staff’, ‘volunteers’, and ‘other paid staff and volunteers’.
In some cases, masculine pronouns are used, i.e., with Catholic priests or when I was certain it would not compromise anonymity. The numbers of female ministers on the island are so small that indicating age and gender for every quotation could compromise anonymity.
- Allen, Michael. 2000. From Ecstasy to Power: Marian Apparitions in Contemporary Irish Catholicism. Anthropological Journal on European Cultures 9: 11–35. [Google Scholar]
- Baker, Joseph O., Gerardo Martí, Ruth Braunstein, Andrew L. Whitehead, and Grace Yukich. 2020. Religion in the Age of Social Distancing: How COVID-19 Presents New Directions for Research. Sociology of Religion 81: 357–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bentzen, Jeanet. 2020. In Crisis, We Pray: Religiosity and the Covid-19 Pandemic. Covid Economics: Vetted and Real-Time Papers 20: 52–108. [Google Scholar]
- Berger, Teresa. 2020. @ Worship Goes Viral: Catholic Liturgy Online in a COVID-19 World. In Digital Ecclesiology: A Global Conversation. Edited by Heidi A. Campbell. College Station: Texas A&M University, Digital Religion Publications, pp. 14–19. Available online: www.digitalreligion.tamu.edu (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Bógdał-Brzezińska, Agnieszka. 2020. Digital Technology as a Tool of Secularization of Contemporary Society? Paper presented at International Scientific Conference, Antwerp, Belgium, October 14; pp. 188–94. [Google Scholar]
- Brady, Chai. 2020. ‘Wake-up Call’ as 19% of Mass-going Catholics Unsure if They’ll Ever Return. Irish Catholic, September 17. [Google Scholar]
- Brendan Research. 2021. Adapt and be Flexible: The Mission Doesn’t Stop—The Scottish Church and the Covid-19 Pandemic. Action of Churches Together in Scotland, Brendan Research and Scottish Church Leaders Forum. Available online: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Wt4aFqtVXQxjx5KHTiUHIR5-thFHD1kf/view (accessed on 9 April 2021).
- Bruce, Steve, and David Voas. 2016. Do Social Crises Cause Religious Revivals? What British Church Adherence Rates Show. Journal of Religion in Europe 9: 26–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bruce, Steve. 2020. British Gods: Religion in Modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Bullivant, Stephen. 2020. Catholicism in the Time of Coronavirus. Park Ridge: Word on Fire. [Google Scholar]
- Byrne, Gareth, and Bernadette Sweetman. 2021. Responses of Clergy and Lay People ot the Covid-19 Crisis. The Furrow 72: 147–53. [Google Scholar]
- Campbell, Heidi A. 2016. Surveying Theoretical Approaches within Digital Religion Studies. New Media & Society 19: 15–24. [Google Scholar]
- Campbell, Heidi A. 2021. What can the Church Learn from the Pandemic about Engaging with Technology? Faith and Leadership. March 9. Available online: https://faithandleadership.com/heidi-campbell-what-can-church-learn-pandemic-about-engaging-technology (accessed on 19 March 2021).
- Campbell, Heidi A., and Giulia Evolvi. 2019. Contextualizing Current Digital Religion Research on Emerging Technologies. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies 2: 5–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Campbell, Heidi A., and Mia Lövheim. 2011. Introduction: Rethinking the Online-Offline connection in the Study of Religion Online. Information Communication and Society 14: 1083–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Campbell, Heidi A., and Troy Shepherd. 2021. What Should Post-Pandemic Religion Look Like? 10 Trends Religious Groups Need to Understand to Survive and Thrive in the Next Decade. College Station: Texas A&M University, Digital Religion Publications, Available online: www.digitalreligion.tamu.edu (accessed on 9 April 2021).
- Campbell, Heidi A., ed. 2013. Digital Religion: Understanding Religious Practice in New Media Worlds. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Cloete, Anita. 2020. The Church is Moving On(Line). In Digital Ecclesiology: A Global Conversation. Edited by Heidi A. Campbell. College Station: Texas A&M University, Digital Religion Publications, pp. 27–31. Available online: www.digitalreligion.tamu.edu (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Durham University. 2020. Offline and Online Religious Activity in the UK during Lockdown and Post-Lockdown. August 24. Available online: https://www.dur.ac.uk/resources/digitaltheology/PressReleasereOnlineChurch.pdf (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Ganiel, Gladys. 2016a. Transforming Post-Catholic Ireland: Religious Practice in Late Modernity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Ganiel, Gladys. 2016b. Secularisation, Ecumenism, and Identity on the Island of Ireland. In Christianity and National Identity in Twentieth-Century Europe. Edited by John Carter Wood. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, pp. 73–90. [Google Scholar]
- Ganiel, Gladys. 2020. People Still Need Us: A Report on a Survey of Faith Leaders on the Island of Ireland during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Belfast: Irish Council of Churches, Available online: https://www.irishchurches.org/cmsfiles/resources/People-Still-Need-Us-May-2020.pdf (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Ganiel, Gladys. 2021. Something Other than a Building: A Report on Churches on the Island of Ireland during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Belfast: Irish Council of Churches, Available online: https://www.irishchurches.org/cmsfiles/Final-Something-other-than-a-Building.pdf (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Ganiel, Gladys, and Martin Steven. Forthcoming. Ireland and the United Kingdom. In The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Europe. Edited by Grace Davie and Lucian Leustean.
- Ganiel, Gladys, Heidemarie Winkel, and Christophe Monnot, eds. 2014. Religion in Times of Crisis. Leiden: Brill. [Google Scholar]
- Gleeson, Colin. 2020. Many Pre-Covid Worshipers will Never Return—Diarmuid Martin. Irish Times, November 14. [Google Scholar]
- Han, Sam. 2016. Technologies of Religion: Spheres of the Sacred in a Post-Secular Modernity. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Harte, Lauren. 2020. One in Five May Never go back to Mass after Covid. Belfast Telegraph, September 18. [Google Scholar]
- Hayes, Bernadette C., and Lizanne Dowds. 2010. Vacant Seats and Empty Pews: ARK Research Update 65. Belfast: Queen’s University and the University of Ulster. [Google Scholar]
- Helland, Christopher. 2005. Online Religion as Lived Religion: Methodological Issues in the Study of Religious Participation on the Internet. Online—Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the Internet 1: 1–16. [Google Scholar]
- Hjvard, Stig. 2008. The Mediatization of Society. Nordicom Review 29: 102–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Holmes, Andrew. 2012. The Ulster Revival of 1859: Causes, Controversies and Consequences. The Journal of Ecclesiastical History 63: 488–515. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hutchings, Tim. 2017. Creating Church Online: Ritual, Community and New Media. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Inglehart, Ronald F. 2021. Religion’s Sudden Decline: What’s Causing It, and What Comes Next? Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Inglis, Tom. 1998. Moral Monopoly: The Rise and Fall of the Catholic Church in Ireland. Dublin: UCD Press. [Google Scholar]
- Inglis, Tom. 2014. Meanings of Life in Contemporary Ireland: Webs of Significance. London: Palgrave Macmillan. [Google Scholar]
- Joas, Hans. 2014. Faith as an Option: Possible Futures for Christianity. Stanford: Stanford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Larkin, Emmet. 1972. The Devotional Revolution in Ireland, 1850–75. The American Historical Review 77: 625–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lövheim, Mia, and Gordon Lynch. 2011. The Mediatisation of Religion Debate: An Introduction. Culture and Religion 12: 111–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lövheim, Mia, and Heidi A. Campbell. 2017. Considering Critical Methods and Theoretical Lenses in Digital Religion Studies. New Media & Society 19: 5–14. [Google Scholar]
- Lövheim, Mia, and Stig Hjarvard. 2019. The Mediatized Conditions of Contemporary Religion: Critical Status and Future Directions. Journal of Religion, Media and Digital Culture 8: 206–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Mac Donald, Sarah. 2020. Priests Take 25 per cent Pay Cut. The Tablet, May 12. [Google Scholar]
- Mitchel, Patrick. 2003. Evangelicalism and National Identity in Ulster. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Mitchell, Claire. 2005. Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland: Boundaries of Belonging and Belief. Aldershot: Ashgate. [Google Scholar]
- Nic Ghiolla Phádraig, Máire. 2009. Religion in Ireland: No Longer an Exception? Ark Research Update 64. Belfast: Queen’s University and University of Ulster, Available online: https://www.ark.ac.uk/ARK/sites/default/files/2018-08/update64.pdf (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Norris, Pippa, and Ronald Inglehart. 2011. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide, Revised 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
- O’Brien, Hazel. 2020. What does the Rise of Digital Religion during Covid-19 tell us about Religion’s Capacity to Adapt? Irish Journal of Sociology 28: 242–46. [Google Scholar]
- O’Connell, Philip, Micheál Collins, Mathew Creighton, and Monika de Silva Pedroso. 2019. Irish Social Attitudes in 2018–2019: Topline Results from Round 9 of the European Social Survey. Dublin: UCD Geary Institute for Public Policy. [Google Scholar]
- O’Leary, Richard. 2016. Census 2016 will get Religion all Wrong. Irish Times, April 18. [Google Scholar]
- O’Mahony, Eoin. 2013. Religion and Beliefs among Catholics in Ireland: A Short Review of Recent ESS Data. Dublin: Council for Research and Development. [Google Scholar]
- Osteen, Sophia, and Heidi A. Campbell. 2020. Themes on the Present Future of Religion. In Religion in Quarantine: The Future of Religion in a Post-Pandemic World. Edited by Heidi A. Campbell. College Station: Texas A&M University, Digital Religion Publications, pp. 56–59. Available online: www.digitalreligion.tamu.edu (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Perry, Nandra. 2020. The Charism of Zoom Church. In Religion in Quarantine: The Future of Religion in a Post-Pandemic World. Edited by Heidi A. Campbell. College Station: Texas A&M University, Digital Religion Publications, pp. 27–29. Available online: www.digitalreligion.tamu.edu (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Pew Research Center. 2018. Being Christian in Western Europe. May 29. Available online: https://www.pewforum.org/2018/05/29/being-christian-in-western-europe/ (accessed on 27 April 2021).
- Phillips, Pete. 2020. Enabling, Extending and Disrupting Religion in the Early Covid19 Crisis. In The Distanced Church: Reflections on Doing Church Online. Edited by Heidi A. Campbell. College Station: Texas A&M University, Digital Religion Publications, pp. 71–74. Available online: www.digitalreligion.tamu.edu (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Piela, Anna. 2017. How do Muslim Women who wear the Niqab Interact with Others Online? A Case Study of a Profile on a Photo-Sharing Website. New Media and Society 19: 67–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reimann, Ralf Peter. 2020. Digital is the New Normal—Churches in Germany during the Corona Pandemic. In The Distanced Church: Reflections on Doing Church Online. Edited by Heidi A. Campbell. College Station: Texas A&M University, Digital Religion Publications, pp. 31–33. Available online: www.digitalreligion.tamu.edu (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Ruane, Joseph. 2021. Long Conflict and how it Ends: Protestants and Catholics in Europe and Ireland. Irish Political Studies. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schaper, Donna. 2020. The Distanced Church: Reflections on Doing Church Online in a Time of Pandemic. In The Distanced Church: Reflections on Doing Church Online. Edited by Heidi A. Campbell. College Station: Texas A&M University, Digital Religion Publications, pp. 34–36. Available online: www.digitalreligion.tamu.edu (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Silverkors, David. 2020. Four Lessons I’ve Learned in the Wake of the Pandemic. In The Distanced Church: Reflections on Doing Church Online. Edited by Heidi A. Campbell. College Station: Texas A&M University, Digital Religion Publications, pp. 38–39. Available online: www.digitalreligion.tamu.edu (accessed on 16 March 2021).
- Turpin, Hugh, Marc Andersen, and Jonathan Lanman. 2018. CREDs, CRUDs, and Catholic Scandals: Experimentally Examining the Effects of Religious Paragon Behavior on Co-Religionist Belief. Religion, Brain & Behaviour 9: 143–55. [Google Scholar]
- Turpin, Hugh. 2019. Leaving Roman Catholicism. In Handbook of Leaving Religion. Edited by Daniel Enstedt, Goran Larsson and Teemu T. Mantsinen. Leiden: Brill, pp. 186–99. [Google Scholar]
- Woodhead, Linda. 2016. The Rise of ‘No Religion’ in Britain: The Emergence of a New Cultural Majority. Journal of the British Academy 4: 245–61. [Google Scholar]
|Faith Community||Online Worship before Pandemic||Online Worship during Pandemic|
|All (N = 439)||56%||87%|
|Catholic Diocesan (N = 101)||62%||82%|
|Catholic Religious (N = 52)||79%||65%|
|Church of Ireland (N = 79)||24%||88%|
|Presbyterian (N = 63)||48%||98%|
|Methodist (N = 40)||25%||90%|
|Other (N = 104)||58%||93%|
|Faith Community||Me Only||Me, Other Paid Staff, and Volunteers||Other Paid Staff and Volunteers||Other||No One|
|Catholic Diocesan (before)||8%||44%||8%||10%||30%|
|Catholic Diocesan (during)||21%||49%||7%||12%||11%|
|Catholic Religious (before)||17%||27%||34%||0%||23%|
|Catholic Religious (during)||13%||33%||35%||2%||17%|
|Church of Ireland (before)||22%||25%||6%||4%||39%|
|Church of Ireland (during)||40%||45%||8%||0%||6%|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Ganiel, G. Online Opportunities in Secularizing Societies? Clergy and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Ireland. Religions 2021, 12, 437. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12060437
Ganiel G. Online Opportunities in Secularizing Societies? Clergy and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Ireland. Religions. 2021; 12(6):437. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12060437Chicago/Turabian Style
Ganiel, Gladys. 2021. "Online Opportunities in Secularizing Societies? Clergy and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Ireland" Religions 12, no. 6: 437. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12060437