Atheism in US and UK Newspapers: Negativity about Non-Belief and Non-Believers
2. Atheism, Public Opinion, Prejudice, and the Media
5. Analysis and Discussion
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Circulation data from https://www.agilitypr.com/resources/top-media-outlets/top-10-daily-american-newspapers/ (accessed on 31 March 2021). “Newspaper of record” information from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newspaper_of_record (accessed on 31 March 2021).
We excluded positive and negative words directly associated with our topic of interest from the sentiment calculation. Specifically, we ignored “atheist”, which appears as negative in one lexicon, as well as “christian” (two lexica) and “church” (one lexicon), which appear as positive terms. For more information about all eight lexica and the sentiment analysis algorithm, see Bleich and van der Veen (forthcoming).
A useful way to think of topic modeling algorithms is that they attempt to reduce the complexity of texts by identifying a specified number of semantic features: They summarize texts, in a way.
Specifically, we calculated average mutual coherence (as measured by cosine distance) of the top 10 words in the topic.
NMF topic models tend to produce one or more “junk” topics; these can be seen as aggregates for all smaller topics whose contents do not fit nicely into one of the topics generated. As the number of topics produced by the model increases, these “junk” topics will become less and less significant. In our case, there is one such topic. More than 40% of all the texts in our corpus have this “topic” as their top topic. Because we could not meaningfully assign these articles to a particular topic, we ignored them in the analyses presented below. Including them instead did not change our substantive findings. The Supplementary Materials provide replication information including these articles.
Sally Quinn writes about religion for the Washington Post.
Michael Newdow filed a prominent lawsuit against the reciting of the Pledge of Allegiance in US in public schools.
This can be explained in part by the explicit separation of church and state in the First Amendment of the US Constitution; a similar separation does not exist in the United Kingdom.
The Supplementary Materials provide the analogous results if we also include those articles whose top “topic” is the generic (non-meaningful) topic. All substantive findings remain the same for this larger corpus of 13,092 articles.
Both correlation values exclude the two country-specific topics.
A word has to occur at least 10 times in our corpus to be included. The words are ranked in order of how disproportionate their presence is in sentences including one of our key terms. All of these associations are statistically significant. Not all words listed are pure adjectives: a number of the words can be used in either adjective or noun form. The list includes single words only; hyphenated adjectives (e.g., “non-religious”) are ignored.
The difference between the two values is statistically significant (p-value = 0.03).
In religious discussions, dogmatic can also have a positive connotation. However, in newspaper coverage, it is almost invariably associated with the negative colloquial meaning of expressing opinions strongly and perhaps arrogantly, as if they were fact.
These data reflect our full corpus, not just the articles about non-foreign topics included in Table 5. The values for the non-foreign subset are even more positive.
The cartoonist example is from “Online cartoons challenge stereotypes” (Washington Post, 27 December 2014). The chess player example is from “Grandmaster under fire after mocking chess player prayer” (Daily Telegraph, 12 March 2018).
“Atheist doctors more likely to hasten death” (Guardian, 26 August 2010).
“Blood, smoke, and rubble” (Guardian, 13 November 2010).
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|New York Times||2439|
|Wall Street Journal||659|
|Bangladesh||Bangladesh, Dhaka, blogger, hacked, bloggers||1.2||1.6|
|China||China, Chinese, Beijing, communist, Lama||2.1||5.0|
|Russia||Russia, Russian, Soviet, Moscow, orthodox||3.1||4.3|
|Religion—specific (14.9%)||Catholicism||pope, Vatican, Catholic, Benedict, church||6.9||5.4|
|Islam||Islam, Muslim, Muslims, Islamic, Saudi||8.9||8.0|
|Religion||religion, religious, faith, God, Christian||22.6||13.4|
|Faith||onfaith, commentary, Washington Post, spirited, Quinn6||0.3||2.7|
|UK politics||minister, prime, labor, Blair, Cameron||9.2||0.6|
|US politics||Republican, Obama, president, voters, Republicans||3.2||10.3|
|Legal||court, government, group, law, state||7.8||22.6|
|Pledge||pledge, court, Newdow,7 allegiance, supreme||0.6||5.6|
|Science||science, Dawkins, evolution, scientific, scientists||12.2||6.9|
|Education||schools, education, school, children, pupils||6.3||1.1|
|Entertainment||theater, film, play, music, production||10.0||11.3|
|Broadcast schedule||val, pm, radio, BBC, day||5.5||1.1|
|Category||Topic||UK%||UK Tone||US%||US Tone|
|Subset||N||Article Valence (Mean)||Sentence Valence (Mean)||Top 10 Adjective Collocates (Sentence-Level)|
|Text contains “atheism” or “atheistic” (collocations for same)||1832||0.07||−0.33||Godless, agnostic, dogmatic, humanist, secular, evolutionary, fundamentalist, militant, evangelical, insulting|
|Text does not contain “atheism” or “atheistic” (collocations for “atheist”, “atheists”)||4935||0.04||−0.20||Agnostic, deist, humanist, nonreligious, godless, avowed, rationalist, unaffiliated, irreligious, secular|
|Articles||Mentioning Name||With Sentences Mentioning Name and “atheis*”|
|N||Valence (Sentences)||N||Valence (Sentences)|
|Public intellectuals (n = 6)||1961||−0.14||1045||0.05|
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van der Veen, A.M.; Bleich, E. Atheism in US and UK Newspapers: Negativity about Non-Belief and Non-Believers. Religions 2021, 12, 291. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12050291
van der Veen AM, Bleich E. Atheism in US and UK Newspapers: Negativity about Non-Belief and Non-Believers. Religions. 2021; 12(5):291. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12050291Chicago/Turabian Style
van der Veen, A. Maurits, and Erik Bleich. 2021. "Atheism in US and UK Newspapers: Negativity about Non-Belief and Non-Believers" Religions 12, no. 5: 291. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12050291