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Open AccessArticle

“Spiritual Warfare” or “Crimes against Humanity”? Evangelized Drug Traffickers and Violence against Afro-Brazilian Religions in Rio de Janeiro

Africana Studies Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
Religions 2020, 11(12), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11120640
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 24 November 2020 / Published: 30 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion and Violence, Rights and Reconciliation)
Since at least 2005, drug traffickers in the cities and favelas of the state of Rio de Janeiro have been carrying out systematic and violent assaults on Afro-Brazilian religious communities. Motivated by their conversion to sects of Evangelical Christianity that regard Afro-Brazilian religions as devil worship, the traffickers have forcibly expelled devotees of these faiths from their homes and temples, destroyed shrines and places of worship, and threatened to kill priests if they continue to practice their religion. Scholars have often described this religious landscape as a “conflict” and a “spiritual war.” However, I argue that Evangelized drug traffickers and Afro-Brazilian religions are not engaged in a two-sided struggle; rather, the former is unilaterally committing gross violations of the latter’s human rights, which contravene international norms prohibiting crimes against humanity and genocide. View Full-Text
Keywords: Afro-Brazilian religions; Candomblé; Umbanda; evangelicals; Brazil; spiritual warfare; violence; crimes against humanity; genocide Afro-Brazilian religions; Candomblé; Umbanda; evangelicals; Brazil; spiritual warfare; violence; crimes against humanity; genocide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boaz, D.N. “Spiritual Warfare” or “Crimes against Humanity”? Evangelized Drug Traffickers and Violence against Afro-Brazilian Religions in Rio de Janeiro. Religions 2020, 11, 640. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11120640

AMA Style

Boaz DN. “Spiritual Warfare” or “Crimes against Humanity”? Evangelized Drug Traffickers and Violence against Afro-Brazilian Religions in Rio de Janeiro. Religions. 2020; 11(12):640. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11120640

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boaz, Danielle N. 2020. "“Spiritual Warfare” or “Crimes against Humanity”? Evangelized Drug Traffickers and Violence against Afro-Brazilian Religions in Rio de Janeiro" Religions 11, no. 12: 640. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11120640

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