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Article

Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Measures of Religious/Spiritual Struggles: A Mixed-Methods Study

1
Department of Psychological Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2
Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2020, 11(10), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11100505
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 23 September 2020 / Accepted: 27 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
Religious and spiritual struggles are typically assessed by self-report scales using closed-ended items, yet nascent research suggests that using open-ended interviews and prompts may complement and advance assessment and theories. In the current mixed-methods study, undergraduate participants (N = 976) completed open-ended descriptions of their religious and spiritual struggles, the Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS), and a quantitative measure of religious belief salience. Qualitative description showed that the themes emerging from open-ended descriptions generally fell within the broad domains of the RSS though some descriptions reflected more contextualized struggles. Scores derived from the open-ended responses to assess RSS domains achieved evidence of reliability, and quantitative correlational analyses provided support for convergent and discriminant validity with the RSS. Correlations revealed a mix of similar and divergent associations between methods of assessing religious and spiritual struggles and religious belief salience. Open-ended descriptions of religious and spiritual struggles may yield reliable and valid information that is related to but distinct from assessments relying on closed-ended items. View Full-Text
Keywords: religious and spiritual struggles; open-ended items; closed-ended items; religious belief salience religious and spiritual struggles; open-ended items; closed-ended items; religious belief salience
MDPI and ACS Style

Wilt, J.A.; Takahashi, J.T.; Jeong, P.; Exline, J.J.; Pargament, K.I. Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Measures of Religious/Spiritual Struggles: A Mixed-Methods Study. Religions 2020, 11, 505. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11100505

AMA Style

Wilt JA, Takahashi JT, Jeong P, Exline JJ, Pargament KI. Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Measures of Religious/Spiritual Struggles: A Mixed-Methods Study. Religions. 2020; 11(10):505. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11100505

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wilt, Joshua A.; Takahashi, Joyce T.; Jeong, Peter; Exline, Julie J.; Pargament, Kenneth I. 2020. "Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Measures of Religious/Spiritual Struggles: A Mixed-Methods Study" Religions 11, no. 10: 505. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11100505

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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