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Open AccessArticle

Psychospiritual Developmental Risk Factors for Moral Injury

1
School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA
3
Central Arkansas VA Health Care System, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
4
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
5
Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
6
Institute for Medicine, Education, and Spirituality, Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, LA 70121, USA
7
College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32827, USA
8
Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital, Bedford, MA 01730, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2020, 11(10), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11100484
Received: 20 August 2020 / Revised: 8 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
There is increasing theoretical, clinical, and empirical support for the hypothesis that psychospiritual development, and more specifically, postconventional religious reasoning, may be related to moral injury. In this study, we assessed the contributions of exposure to potentially morally injurious events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and psychospiritual development to moral injury symptoms in a sample of military veterans (N = 212). Psychospiritual development was measured as four dimensions, based on Wulff’s theory juxtaposing conventional vs. postconventional levels of religious reasoning, with decisions to be an adherent or a disaffiliate of faith. After controlling for exposure to potentially morally injurious events and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms, veterans who were conventional disaffiliates reported higher scores on the Moral Injury Questionnaire than conventional adherents, postconventional adherents, or postconventional disaffiliates. We conclude that the role of psychospiritual development offers a theoretical approach to moral injury that invites collaboration between social scientists, philosophers, theologians, and medical professionals. View Full-Text
Keywords: spirituality; moral injury; spiritual distress; PTSD; psychospiritual development; moral distress; religious functioning spirituality; moral injury; spiritual distress; PTSD; psychospiritual development; moral distress; religious functioning
MDPI and ACS Style

Usset, T.J.; Gray, E.; Griffin, B.J.; Currier, J.M.; Kopacz, M.S.; Wilhelm, J.H.; Harris, J.I. Psychospiritual Developmental Risk Factors for Moral Injury. Religions 2020, 11, 484.

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