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Open AccessArticle

Religiosity, Religious Practice, and Antisemitism in Present-Day Hungary

1
Department of Social Research Methodology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter Sétány 1/a, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary
2
Nationalism Studies/Jewish Studies, Central European University, Nádor utca 9, H-1051 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2019, 10(9), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10090527
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 13 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Return of Religious Antisemitism?)
Since 1995, Surveys on antisemitism using national representative samples have been regularly carried out in Hungary. In this article, we used data from the 2011 and 2017 surveys to explore the relationship between three types of antisemitism, namely religious, secular, and emotional. Moreover, we scrutinized how different religiosity indicators can be used as explanatory variables for the different types of antisemitism. We found a slight increase in religious and secular antisemitism between 2011 and 2017, while emotional antisemitism remained almost the same. Religious anti-Judaism significantly correlated with both secular and emotional antisemitism, however, its relationship was much stronger with the former. When analyzing the relationship between different types of antisemitism and religiosity indicators, we found that while in 2011, all the indicators were connected to religious, and most of them to secular and emotional antisemitism, in 2017, only the variables measuring subjective self-classification remained significant. The results show that the relationship between religion and antisemitism underwent some substantial changes between 2011 and 2017. While in 2011, personal religiosity was a significant predictor of the strength of antisemitism, in 2017, religion serving as a cultural identity marker took over this function. The hypothetical explanatory factor for the change is the rebirth of the “Christian-national” idea appearing as the foundational element of the new Hungarian constitution, according to which Christian culture is the ultimate unifying force of the nation, giving the inner essence and meaning of the state. In this discourse, being Christian is equated with being Hungarian. Self-declared and self-defined Christian religiosity plays the role of a symbolic marker for accepting the national-conservative identity discourse and belonging to the “Christian-national” cultural-political camp where antisemitic prejudices occur more frequently than in other segments of the society. View Full-Text
Keywords: antisemitism; religiosity; Hungary; quantitative analysis antisemitism; religiosity; Hungary; quantitative analysis
MDPI and ACS Style

Barna, I.; Kovács, A. Religiosity, Religious Practice, and Antisemitism in Present-Day Hungary. Religions 2019, 10, 527.

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