Rhetorica and Exemplum: The Genesis of Christian Literature in Late Imperial China
1. Why Did the Ming Chinese Forget Rhetoric?
2. European Jesuits and the Appearance of Western Rhetoric in China
… [I] was told that there was a virtuous scholar who would like to know all about God, thinking about Him all day long. One day, as he was walking along the seashore, he met a child, who hold a bowel with cracks and walked toward the sea. The scholar asked the child, “Where will you go?” The child replied, “I like to put all the water of the sea into this bowel.” The scholar laughed, “You are wrong if you want to put the entire sea into this bowel.” The child answered, “Since you have known that I can’t exhaust the sea by using this bowel with cracks, isn’t it ridiculous for you to exhaust the knowledge about God by sparing no effort to do so?” The child then vanished in no time, and the scholar was so surprised that he was illuminated to knew that the child was an angel.5
3. Ciceronian Rhetoric and Its Representation in Ming China
[The five parts of rhetoric] begin with the study of things, events, persons, and the conditions of times before one speculates on the cause of delivering one’s speech for the presentation of one’s proper intention. What is important next is the deployment [of materials and arguments.] This has to be made in good order, in the way as a wise commander would do with his troop: the brave will be deployed in front and at the back of the troop, while the cowardly will be placed in the middle. And then one adorns one’s speech with antique gems and beautiful diction. And then one commits to memory the finished discourse by recitation. Finally one delivers it in a public hall or disputes it with wise persons.13
As for the method of discourse, there are five steps. First, to observe things, events, persons, and the conditions of the times, and to seek the causes behind them; such are called materials for discourse. Second, to deploy [materials and arguments] in good order: first this, then that. Third, to adorn with gems from ancient writers. Fourth, to commit to memory the finished discourse. If a student is intelligent and good at memory, there is method for keeping his memory fresh. If the student is forgetful, there is the art of memory. Finally, the student appears in a public hall in front of the examiners to recite his discourse or mounts a platform for a disputation with wise and learned persons. Now the purpose of discourse is to pierce the doubts and guide the will of the listened, for it does little benefit if one is capable of handling affairs but incapable of moving the hearts and emotions of others. Hence, there is a method, too, in the stress and speed of delivery, in the facial expressions, and in the movements of the hands and eyes, of the speakers, so that the words will touch the listeners’ loves and hates, sorrows and joys and do not merely disperse in the air.14
4. European and Chinese Rhetoric Compared
5. Exemplum and the Thematic Sermon
Conflicts of Interest
- Ahn, Jaewon. 2017. On Xiguo Jifa (『西國記法』) of Matteo Ricci (1552–1610). Journal of Greco-Roman Studies 56: 99–121. [Google Scholar]
- Ai, Rulue, (Julius Aleni). 1964. Xixue Fan. Edited by Zhizhao Li. Tienxue chuhan. Taipei: Ricci Institute. [Google Scholar]
- Ai, Yueshe, (Joseph Edkins). 2006. Xila wei Xiguo wenxue zhi zhu. In Liuhe Congtan, Fu Jieti, Suoyin. Edited by Shen Guowei. Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chupanshe. [Google Scholar]
- Alan of Lille. 1981. The Art of Preaching. Translated by Gillian R. Evans. Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publication. [Google Scholar]
- Anonymous. 2002. Xingmi pian. In Yeshuhui Luoma Dan’anguan Ming Qing Tianzhujiao Wenxian. Edited by Mingdan Zhong (Nicolas Standaert) and Dingke Du. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 12, pp. 239–388. [Google Scholar]
- Anonymous. 2009. Shanyi Shengxue. In Faguo Guojia Tushuguan Ming Qing Tianzhujiao Wenxian. Edited by Mingdan Zhong, Dingke Du and Xi Mon. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 26, pp. 401–628. [Google Scholar]
- Anonymous. 2013. Lun fuli xiushi. In Xuejiahui Chanshulou Ming Qing Tianzhujiao Wenxian Xuibian. Edited by Mingdan Zhong, Dingke Du and Renfang Wang. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 23, pp. 469–582. [Google Scholar]
- Anonymous. 2013. Tianzhu shenjiao koduo. In Xuejiahui Chanshulou Ming Qing Tianzhujiao Wenxian Xuibian. Edited by Mingdan Zhong, Dingke Du and Renfang Wang. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 34, pp. 1–325. [Google Scholar]
- Bataillon, Louis-Jacques. 1980. Approaches to the Study of Medieval Sermons. Leeds Studies in English 11: 19–30. [Google Scholar]
- Bataillon, Louis-Jacques. 1985. Simitudines et exempla dans les sermons du XIIIe siècle. In The Bible in the Medieval World: Essays in Memory of Beryl Smalley. Edited by Katherine Walsh and Diana Wood. Oxford: Published for the Ecclesiastical History Society by Basil Blackwell, pp. 191–205. [Google Scholar]
- Timothy Billings, trans. 2009, [Matteo Ricci] On Friendship: One Hundred Maxims for a Chinese Prince. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Boyle, Marjorie O’Rourke. 1997. Loyola’s Acts: The Rhetoric of the Self. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]
- Caplan, Harry. 1933. Classical Rhetoric and the Medieval Theory of Preaching. Classical Philology 28: 73–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carter, Minnie Luella. 1928. Studies in the Scala celi of Johannes Gobii Junior. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. [Google Scholar]
- Chen, Ding, comp. 1991. Tonglin liezhuan. In Mingdai zhuanji congkan. Edited by Junfu Zhou. Taipei: Mingwen, vol. 24. [Google Scholar]
- Chu, Ping-yi. 1996. Shenti, linghuan yu Tianzhu: Mingmo Qingchu Xixue zhong de renti shengli zhishi. Xinshixue 7: 47–97. [Google Scholar]
- Cicero. 1989. Ad Herennium. In Cicero I. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Cicero. 1996. De Oratore. In Cicero III. Translated by Edwad Wlliam Sutton, and Harris Rackham. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Crane, Thomas Frederick. 1983. Medieval Sermon-Books and Stories. Proceedings of the America Philosophical Society 21: 49–78. [Google Scholar]
- D’Avray, D. L. 1995. Philosophy in Preaching: The Case of a Franciscan Based in Thirteenth-Century Florence (Servasanto da Faenza). In Literature and Religion in the Late Middle Ages: Philological Studies in Honor of Siegfried Wenzel. Edited by Richard G. Newhauser and John A. Alford. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton, pp. 263–73. [Google Scholar]
- D’Elia, Pasquale. 1942. Fonti Ricciane. 3 vols. Rome: La Libreria dello Stato. [Google Scholar]
- D’Elia, Pasquale. 1950. Le Generalita sulle Scienze Occidentali di Giulio Aleni. Rivista degli Studi Orientali 25: 58–76. [Google Scholar]
- Engelfriet, Peter M. 1998. Euclid in China: The Genesis of the First Chinese Translation of Euclid's Elements, Books I-VI (Jihe yuanben, Beijing, 1607) and Its Reception up to 1723. Leiden: Brill. [Google Scholar]
- Fan, Hongye. 1992. Yesuhuishi yu Zhongguo kexue. Beijing: Zhongguo renming daxue chubanshe. [Google Scholar]
- Fitzpatrick, Edward A., ed. 1993. St. Ignatius and the Ratio Studiorum. New York: McGraw-Hill. [Google Scholar]
- Front, Philos. 2019. The Tianzhu Shilu. Revisited: China’s First Window into Western Scholasticism. China 14: 201–25. [Google Scholar]
- Louis Joel. S.J. Gallagher, trans. 1942, China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Matthew Ricci: 1583–1610. New York: Random House.
- George E. Ganss, trans. 1996, Constitutions of the Society of Jesus. Saint Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources.
- Gao, Yizhi, (Alfonso Vagnone). 1995. Tongyou jaioyu. In Xujiahui changshulou Ming Qing Tianzhujiao wenxian. Edited by Mingda Zhong, Dingke Du and Xi Mon. Taipei: Fangji Chupanshe, vol. 5. [Google Scholar]
- Gao, Yizhi. 2009. Lixue guyan. Edited by Mingda Zhong, Dingke Du and Xi Mon. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 26, pp. 1–66. [Google Scholar]
- Garrett, Mary M. 1993. Classical Chinese Conceptions of Argumentations and Persuasion. Argument and Advocacy 29: 105–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gernet, Jacques. 1986. China and the Christian Impact. Translated by Janet Lloyd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Gregg, Joan Young. 1997. Devils, Women, and Jews: Reflections of the Other in Medieval Sermon Stories. Albany: State University of New York Press. [Google Scholar]
- Grendler, Paul F. 1989. Schooling in Renaissance Italy: Literacy and Learning, 1300–1600. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Han, Qi. 2019. Kangxi huangdi, Yeshuhuisi, Kexue Chuanbo. Beijing: Zhongguo da baikequanshu chubanshe. [Google Scholar]
- Hanfeizi. 1964. The Difficulties of Persuasion (Shuonan). In Basic Writings of Mo Tzu, Hsun Tzu, and Han Fei Tzu. Translated by Burton Watson. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 73–79. [Google Scholar]
- Hinnebusch, William A. 1951. The Early English Friars Preachers. Rome: Institutum Historicum FF. Praedicatorum. [Google Scholar]
- Jin, Nige. 2009. Kuangyi . In Faguo guojia tushuguan Ming Qing Tianzhujiao wenxian. Edited by Mingdan Zhong, Dingke Du and Xi Mon. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 4, pp. 305–43. [Google Scholar]
- Kaufmann, Hanna Wanda. 1995. The Exemplum: Its Morphology, Function, Evolution and Transmission. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA. [Google Scholar]
- George Kennedy, trans. 1991, Aristotle. In On Rhetoric. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Kennedy, George A. 1994. A New History of Classical Rhetoric. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Kennedy, George A. 1998. Comparative Rhetoric: An Historical and Cross-Cultural Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Kindstrand, Jan Fredrik. 1986. Diogenes Laertius and the Chreia Tradition. Elenchos 71–72: 226–42. [Google Scholar]
- Kloppenborg, John S. 1987. The Formation of Q: Trajectories in Ancient Wisdom Collections. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. [Google Scholar]
- Lang, Robert T. 1952. The Teaching of Rhetoric in French Jesuit Colleges, 1556–1762. Speech Monographs 19: 286–98. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lesnick, Daniel R. 1989. Preaching in Medieval Florence: The Social World of Franciscan and Dominican Spirituality. Athens: University of Georgia Press. [Google Scholar]
- Li, Madou. 1964. Xiguo jifa. In Tianzhujiao Dongchuan Wenxian. Edited by Xiangxiang Wu. Taipei: Xuesheng, pp. 1–70. [Google Scholar]
- Li, Madou. 1965. Tianzhu shiyi. In Tianxue Chuhan. Edited by Zhizao Li. Taipei: Xuesheng, vol. 1, pp. 351–636. [Google Scholar]
- Li, Sher-shiueh. 2005. Zhongguo wan-Ming yu Ouzhou wenxue—Mingmo Yeshuhui zhengdao gushi kaoquan. Taipei: Liangjing. [Google Scholar]
- Li, Jiugong. 2009. Lixiu Yijian. Faguo Guojia Tushuguan Ming Qing Tianzhujiao wenxian. Edited by Mingdan Zhong, Dinke Du and Xi Mon. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 7, pp. 67–179. [Google Scholar]
- Li, Zhen. 2015. Shilun Ming Qing zhi ji lai Hua Yesuhuishi yu Rujia Jidutu zhi xueshu jiaowang: yi Ma Ruoshe yu Liu Ning wei zhongxin. Beijing xingzhen xueyuan xuebao 2: 123–28. [Google Scholar]
- Li, Sher-Shiueh. 2017. The Multiple Beginnings of Modern Chinese ‘Literature. In A New Literary History of Modern China. Edited by David Der-wei Wang. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 29–34. [Google Scholar]
- Li, Sher-shiueh, and Kid Lam, eds. 2014. Wan-Ming Tianzhujiao fanyi wenxue jianzhu. Taipei: Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy, Academia Sinica, vol. 4. [Google Scholar]
- Li, Sher-shiueh, and Thierry Meynard. 2014. Jesuit Chreia in Late Ming China: Two Studies with an Annotated Translation of Alfonso Vagnone’s “Illustrations of the Grand Dao”. Bern: Peter Lang. [Google Scholar]
- Liu, Xie. 1985. Lunshuo and Yidui. In Liu Xie. Wenxin diaolong [jiaozheng] 文心雕龍[校證]. Annotated by Liqi Wang. Taipei: Mingwen. [Google Scholar]
- Liu, Dachun, ed. 2018. Xixue Dongjian. Beijing: Zhongguo Remin Daxue Chubanshe. [Google Scholar]
- Lu, Xing. 1998. Rhetoric in Ancient China, Fifth to Third Century B.C.E: A Comparison with Classical Greek Rhetoric. Columbia: University of Southern Carolina Press. [Google Scholar]
- Luk, Bernard Hung-kay. 1977. Thus the Twain Did Meet? The Two Worlds of Giulio Aleni. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA. [Google Scholar]
- Lundbæk, Knud. 1991. Joseph De Prémare, 1666–1736, S.J.: Chinese Philology and Figurism. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Luo, Mingjian. 1966. Tianzhu Shengjiao Shilu. In Tianzhujia Dongchuan Wenxien Xubian. Edited by Xiangxiang Wu. Taipei: Xuesheng, vol. 3, pp. 755–838. [Google Scholar]
- Luo, Mingjian. 2002. Tianzhu Shengjiao Shilu. In Yesuhui Luoma Dang’an Guan Ming Qing Tianhujiao wenxian. Edited by Mingdan Zhong and Dinke Du. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 12, pp. 1–85. [Google Scholar]
- Matarasso, Pauline, ed. 1993. The Cistercian World: Monastic Writings of the Twelfth Century. Harmondsworth: Penguin. [Google Scholar]
- McFague, Sallie. 1975. Speaking in Parables: A Study in Metaphor and Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. [Google Scholar]
- McGinness, Frederick J. 1995. Right Thinking and Sacred Oratory in Counter-Reformation Rome. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [Google Scholar]
- McGuire, Brian Patrick. 1983. The Cistercians and the Rise of the Exemplum in Early Thirteenth Century France: A Reevaluation of Paris BN Ms lat. 1592. Classica et Mediaevalia 34: 211–67. [Google Scholar]
- Mei, Qianli, (Thierry Meynard). 2017. Tongyuo jiaoyu jinzhu. Beijing: Commercial Press. [Google Scholar]
- Miller, Joseph M., Michael W. Prossel, and Thomas W. Benson, eds. 1974. Readings in Medieval Rhetoric. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Mountford, Roxanne Denise. 1991. The Feminization of the Ars Praedicandi. Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. [Google Scholar]
- Mungello, David Emil. 1979. Silencing of Jesuit Figurist Prémare. Lanham: Lexington Books. [Google Scholar]
- Murphy, James J. 1974. Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: A History of Rhetorical Theory from Saint Augustine to the Renaissance. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]
- Nolcken, Christina von. 1981. Some Alphabetical Compendia and How Preachers Used Them in Fourteenth-Century England. Viator Medieval and Renaissance Studies 12: 271–84. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- O’Malley, John W. 1993. The First Jesuits. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Oliver, Robert T. 1971. Communication and Culture in Ancient India and China. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Pfander, Homer G. 1934. The Medieval Friars and Some Alphabetical Reference-Books for Sermons. Medium Ævum 3: 10–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Prémare, Joseph Henri. 1831. Notitia Linguæ Sinicæ. Malaccæ: Collegii Anglo-Sinici. [Google Scholar]
- Quintilian. 1993. Insttutio oratoria. Translated by Harold Edgeworth Butter. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, III. iii. 1-iv. 15. [Google Scholar]
- Redaelli, Margherita. 2007. Il mappamondo con la Cina al Centro: Fonti Antiche e Mediazione Culturale Nell’poera di Matteo Ricci S.J. Pisa: Edizioni ETS. [Google Scholar]
- Ricci, Matteo, S.I. 1942. Storia dell’Introduzione del Cristianesimo in Cina. In Fonti Ricciane. Edited by Pasquale M. D’Elia S.I. Rome: La Libreria dello Stato, vol. 3. [Google Scholar]
- Rosweyd, Herbert. 1864. Vitae patrum sive historiæ eremiticæ libri decem. In Patrologiæ Lainæ. Edited by J.-P. Migne. Paris: Excudebat Migne 1844–1855, 1862–1864, vol. 73. [Google Scholar]
- Sánchez, Clemente. 1992. The Book of Tales by A.B.C. (Libro de los exienplos por a.b.c). Translated by John Esten Keller, Louis Clark Keating, and Eric M. Furr. New York: Peter Lang. [Google Scholar]
- Soarez, Cypriano. 1955. De Arte Rhetorica. In Lawrence J. Flynn, S.J. The De Arte Rhetorica (1568) by Cyprian Soarez, S.J.: A Translation with Introduction and Notes. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. [Google Scholar]
- Song, Silian, and Yuwen Huang. 1991. Zhongguo Gudai Yanshuoshi. Jilin: Dongbei Shifan Daxue. [Google Scholar]
- Standaert, ed. 2001. The Handbook of Christianity in China. Volume One: 635–1800. Leiden: Brill. [Google Scholar]
- Joseph N. Tylenda, trans. 1985, A Pilgrim’s Journey: The Autobiography of Ignatius of Loyola. Collegeville: Liturgical Press.
- Voragine, Jacobus. 1993. The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints. Translated by William Granger Ryan. 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Waddell, Helen. 1987. The Desert Fathers. London: Constable. [Google Scholar]
- Walsh, Patrick Gerald. 1977. Alan of Lille as a Renaissance Figure. In Renaissance and Renewal in Christian History. Edited by Derek Baker. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–36. [Google Scholar]
- Wei, Kuanguo, (Martino Martini). 1984. Qiouyou pian. In Tianzhujiao Dongchuan Wenxian Sanbian. Edited by Xiangxiang Wu. Taipei: Xuesheng, vol. 1, pp. 1–88. [Google Scholar]
- Wilks, Michael. 1977. Alan of Lille and the New Man. In Renaissance and Renewal in Christian History. Edited by Derek Baker. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 137–57. [Google Scholar]
- Xie, Zaozhe. 1959. Wu Zazhu, Juan 4. Beijing: Zhonghua. [Google Scholar]
- Xunzi. 1979. “Feixiang”. In Xunzi, Xunzi [jijie]. Annotated by Disheng Li. Taipei: Xuesheng, pp. 73–91. [Google Scholar]
- Yuan, Huan, and Tinghu Zong, eds. 1990. Hanyu xiucixueshi. Hefei: Anhui Jiaoyu. [Google Scholar]
- Zhong, Mimgdan, Dingke Du, and Xi Mon, eds. 2002. Jesuhui Luoma dan’angun Ming-Qing Tianzhujiao wenxian. vol. 12. [Google Scholar]
- Zhong, Mingdan, Dingke Du, and Xi Mon, eds. 2009. Faguuo guojia toshuguan Ming-Qing Tianzhujiao wen xian. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 26. [Google Scholar]
- Zhong, Mingdan, Dingke Du, and Renhuang Wang, eds. 2013. Xujihui changshu lou Ming-–Qing Tianzhujiao wenxian xubian. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 34. [Google Scholar]
- Zhou, Zhi. 2013. Shengjaio ge zhanli duoyin. Vol 1. In Xujihui changshulou Ming Qing Tianzhujiao wenxian xubian. Edited by Mingdan Zhong, Dingke Du and Renhuang Wang. Taipei: Ricci Institute, vol. 27, pp. 1–210. [Google Scholar]
- Zhu, Xi, anno. 1997. Confucius, Lunyu. In Shishu Jizhu. Taipei: Shijie. [Google Scholar]
- Zou, Weilian. 2001. Pixie guanjian lu. In Mingmo Qinchu Tianzhujiao Shi wenxian congbian. Edited by Mifang Zhou. Beijing: Beijing Tushuguan Chubanshe, vol. 3. [Google Scholar]
- Zürcher, Erik, ed. 1991. Bibliography of the Jesuit Mission in China (ca. 1580–ca. 1680). Leiden: Center of Non-Western Studies, Leiden University, pp. 101–24. [Google Scholar]
- Zürcher, Erik. 1996. Renaissance rhetoric in Late Ming China: Alfonso Vagnoni’s Introduction to His Science of Comparison. In Western Humanistic Culture Presented to China by Jesuit Missionaries (XVII–XVIII Centuries). Edited by Federico Masini. Rome: Institum Historicum S.I, pp. 331–60. [Google Scholar]
For discussions in Western languages, see the titles listed in Zürcher 1991, pp. 101–24, or its expanded version by Nicolas Standaert, in Standaert 2001, pp. 238–45, and 936–41. On mathematics, there is one book worthy of our special mention: Engelfriet 1998. But studies on humanities also began long ago. For discussions particularly on literary works, see selected titles in Li and Lam 2014.
For a biography of Zou Weilian, see Chen 1991, comp., juan 18, in Zhou 1991, 6:231. For Su and Zhang, see the discussion of them in Xing 1998, p. 87.
Not until the Song and the Ming, those Neo-Confucians, for teaching purposes, began to deliver longer speeches as we understand them today, although they were still not the outputs of an art equaled to the Greco-Roman art of speech. See Song and Huang 1991, pp. 166–259.
For the text of Xiguo jifa, please refer to Wu 1964, 1–70. For a recent study on Xiguo jifa, see Ahn 2017, “On Xiguo jifa (『西國記法』) of Matteo Ricci (1552–1610),” pp. 99–121.
So far as I know, the anonymous Chinese authors of Xingmi pian醒迷篇 (Anonymous 2002), Tianzhu shengjiao koduo天主聖教口鐸 (Anonymous 20013b), Lun fuli xiushi論輔理修士 (Anonymous 2013a), and Shanyi shengxue三一聖學 (Anonymous 2009) all quote the “Vision of St. Augustine” in their respective titles. See Zhong et al. 2009, 9:268–269; 9:268–269; Zhong et al. 2009, 3:428–430; Zhong et al. 2013, 20:130. For known authors’ citations, see Li 2009; Zhou 2013, 27:148.
For the texts where Christian type of exemplum was often made of, see Rosweyd 1864, in J.-P. Migne, ed. 1862–1864, vol 73; Waddell 1987; and Voragine 1993. It is said that it was partially for the latter collection that Ignatius of Loyola made up his mind to be a priest (Tylenda 1985, p. 12). Ignatius’s dramatic decision had itself become a Christian exemplum in Alfonso Vagnone’s work in Chinese before 1628 (Gao, in Zhong et al. 2002, 1:367–68). For a modern discussion on the rhetoricity of this episode in Ignatius’s autobiography, see Boyle 1997, pp. 5ff.
For the year the chapter on Western learning was completed, see Mei 2017, p. 216n2.
My translation here is done partially by following Bernard Hung-kay Luk’s rendition of Aleni’s version, with different wording and diction, in Xixue fan. See Luk 1977, p. 70. Unfortunately, Luk is ignorant of Aleni’s borrowing from Vagnone, nor is he aware of Vagnone’s borrowing from Soarez. He thus comes to the misleading conclusion that the Ciceronian parts of rhetorical formation “are quite obviously derived from Cicero’s De oratore.” I agree that Soarez’s source is Cicero, De Oratore, 1.31.142–143, but it is clear that Vagnone’s source is De Arte rhetorica. An obvious evidence of Vagnone’s borrowing from Soarez lies in their shared emphasis on the simile of the commander and his troop. Soarez’s original in this context, to quote Flynn’s translation, reads, “The calibre of a distinguished commander is not better discerned from his selection of the brave and the spirited soldiers for war, than from posting an army for battle” (Soarez in Flynn 1955, p. 209). Elsewhere, Soarez uses the same figure of idea once more, although not so relevant to my argument: “The army that has a wise commander is governed more satisfactorily in all respects than one ordered by some rash and stupid person” (Soarez in Flynn 1955, p. 240).
As I will suggest in what follows, it has been a mistake to take xiuqi xue 修辭學as an equivalent to “rhetoric;” I prefer yantan zhishu言談之術to it, though it is still different from Western idea of rhetoric.
See Xunzi 1979, “Feixiang 非相,” pp. 73–91; Hanfeizi 1964, “The Difficulties of Persuasion” (“Shuonan 說難”), pp. 73–79; and Liu Xie 劉勰, “Lunshuo 論說” and “Yidui 議對,” in Liu 1985, pp. 126–33, 169–75. For a historical survey in this respect, see Song and Huang 1991, and Yuan and Zong 1990, pp. 9ff; Oliver 1971, pp. 84–257; and Garrett 1993, pp. 105–15.
There were, of course, exceptions in the vernacular. For examples in this regard, see Crane 1983, pp. cii–cxvi.
© 2019 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Li, S.-S. Rhetorica and Exemplum: The Genesis of Christian Literature in Late Imperial China. Religions 2019, 10, 465. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10080465
Li S-S. Rhetorica and Exemplum: The Genesis of Christian Literature in Late Imperial China. Religions. 2019; 10(8):465. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10080465Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Sher-Shiueh. 2019. "Rhetorica and Exemplum: The Genesis of Christian Literature in Late Imperial China" Religions 10, no. 8: 465. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10080465