Next Article in Journal
Religion without God? Approaches to Theological Reference in Modern and Contemporary Jewish Thought
Previous Article in Journal
Correction: Beltrán, W. M. et al. Pentecostals, Gender Ideology and the Peace Plebiscite: Colombia 2016. Religions 9 (2018): 418
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Religions 2019, 10(1), 61;

Religious Pluralism and Religion-State Relations in Turkey

Department of Sociology of Religion, Faculty of Theology, Marmara University, Mahir İz Cad. No. 2, Üsküdar, Istanbul 34662, Turkey
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [245 KB, uploaded 18 January 2019]


In this article, I examine religion-state relations and religious pluralism in Turkey in terms of recent changes in the religious landscape. I propose that there is a growing trend in the religious sphere that has resulted in a proliferation of religions, sects and spiritual approaches in Turkey. I argue that although the religious market model might not be applicable to the Turkish religious sphere during the republican era until the 2000s due to the restrictions applied by the state’s authoritarian secularist policies, it is compatible with today’s changing society. Different religious groups as well as spiritual movements have used the democratization process of the 2000s in Turkey as an opportunity to proselytize various faiths and understandings of Islam, with both traditional and modernist forms. In this period, new religious movements have also appeared. Thus, the Turkish religious landscape has recently become much more complicated than it was two decades earlier. I plan for this descriptive work firstly to provide an insight into the history of religious pluralism and state policies in Turkey. Secondly, I will discuss the religious policies of the republican period and, thirdly, I will evaluate recent developments such as the increasing number of approaches in the religious sphere within the scope of the religious market model. View Full-Text
Keywords: Turkey; religious pluralism; secularism; Islam; religious market; laicism Turkey; religious pluralism; secularism; Islam; religious market; laicism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Albayrak, H.Ş. Religious Pluralism and Religion-State Relations in Turkey. Religions 2019, 10, 61.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Religions EISSN 2077-1444 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert Logo copyright Steve Bridenbaugh/UUA
Back to Top