Next Article in Journal
The Sociology of Religion in a Post-Colonial Era: Towards Theoretical Reflexivity
Next Article in Special Issue
The Inheritance and Change of the Contemporary Daur Shaman
Previous Article in Journal
Sacrifice and ‘Religion’: Modeling Religious Change in the Roman Empire
Previous Article in Special Issue
Did the Imperially Commissioned Manchu Rites for Sacrifices to the Spirits and to Heaven Standardize Manchu Shamanism?
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Religions 2019, 10(1), 17;

Shamanism, Eroticism, and Death: The Ritual Structures of the Nine Songs in Comparative Context

School of Philosophy, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekou Outer St, BeiTaiPingZhuang, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100875, China
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [512 KB, uploaded 28 December 2018]


Eroticism is an independent feature of human life that influences many areas of experience, including death and religion. While eroticism has received a good deal of scholarly attention in religious studies, the present study takes the Nine Songs as the starting point for a discussion of eroticism as a frequent element in the world of shamanism. These songs provide the earliest linguistic corpus in East Asia that allows us a glimpse into the world of the shaman, and they constitute one of the earliest sources of this type preserved anywhere in the world by giving depictions of eroticized gender relations between shamans and spirits. This study comparatively situates the ritual structures expressed in the Nine Songs to uncover deeper affinities between shamanism, eroticism, violence, and death. View Full-Text
Keywords: Shamanism; eroticism; death; mysticism; Nine Songs (Jiu ge) Shamanism; eroticism; death; mysticism; Nine Songs (Jiu ge)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Michael, T. Shamanism, Eroticism, and Death: The Ritual Structures of the Nine Songs in Comparative Context. Religions 2019, 10, 17.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Religions EISSN 2077-1444 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert Logo copyright Steve Bridenbaugh/UUA
Back to Top