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Article

Above and below: Military Aircraft Noise in Air and under Water at Whidbey Island, Washington

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School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, 1122 NE Boat Street, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
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Omfishient Consulting, 2333 Seringa Avenue, Bremerton, WA 98310, USA
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Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
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Oceans Initiative, 117 E Louisa St #135, Seattle, WA 98102, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(11), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8110923
Received: 26 September 2020 / Revised: 21 October 2020 / Accepted: 4 November 2020 / Published: 16 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Noise: From Science to Management)
Military operations may result in noise impacts on surrounding communities and wildlife. A recent transition to more powerful military aircraft and a national consolidation of training operations to Whidbey Island, WA, USA, provided a unique opportunity to measure and assess both in-air and underwater noise associated with military aircraft. In-air noise levels (110 ± 4 dB re 20 µPa rms and 107 ± 5 dBA) exceeded known thresholds of behavioral and physiological impacts for humans, as well as terrestrial birds and mammals. Importantly, we demonstrate that the number and cumulative duration of daily overflights exceed those in a majority of studies that have evaluated impacts of noise from military aircraft worldwide. Using a hydrophone deployed near one runway, we also detected sound signatures of aircraft at a depth of 30 m below the sea surface, with noise levels (134 ± 3 dB re 1 µPa rms) exceeding thresholds known to trigger behavioral changes in fish, seabirds, and marine mammals, including Endangered Southern Resident killer whales. Our study highlights challenges and problems in evaluating the implications of increased noise pollution from military operations, and knowledge gaps that should be prioritized with respect to understanding impacts on people and sensitive wildlife. View Full-Text
Keywords: military aircraft; noise pollution; ocean noise; Endangered species; human health; animal behavior military aircraft; noise pollution; ocean noise; Endangered species; human health; animal behavior
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuehne, L.M.; Erbe, C.; Ashe, E.; Bogaard, L.T.; Salerno Collins, M.; Williams, R. Above and below: Military Aircraft Noise in Air and under Water at Whidbey Island, Washington. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 923. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8110923

AMA Style

Kuehne LM, Erbe C, Ashe E, Bogaard LT, Salerno Collins M, Williams R. Above and below: Military Aircraft Noise in Air and under Water at Whidbey Island, Washington. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(11):923. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8110923

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuehne, Lauren M., Christine Erbe, Erin Ashe, Laura T. Bogaard, Marena Salerno Collins, and Rob Williams. 2020. "Above and below: Military Aircraft Noise in Air and under Water at Whidbey Island, Washington" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8, no. 11: 923. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8110923

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