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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 6;

Antimacrofouling Efficacy of Innovative Inorganic Nanomaterials Loaded with Booster Biocides

School of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences in Eilat, Eilat 88103, Israel
Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Smallmatek-Small Materials and Technologies, Lda., Rua Canhas, 3810-075 Aveiro, Portugal
AquaBioTech Group Central Complex, Naggar Street, Targa Gap, Mosta MST 1761, Malta
CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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The application of nano-structured compounds has been increasing rapidly in recent years, in several fields. The use of engineered nano-materials as carriers of antifouling compounds is just beginning and already reveals clear advantages compared to bulk active compounds, such as slowed and controlled release, novel functionality, and high loading capacity. This present study assesses the antifouling efficacy of two nanostructured materials, spherical mesoporous silica nanocapsules (SiNC) and Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH), loaded with two commercial biocides, zinc prithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT). The study used adult mussels from three geographical regions, the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and the Red Sea, to examine the efficacy of the innovative compounds. The efficacy of these compounds on larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina from the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea was also examined. The results of this study demonstrated the environmentally friendly properties of unloaded LDH against the two-model systems, adult mussels or bryozoan larvae. ZnPT entrapped in LDH demonstrated the most effective antifouling compound against the two model systems. A comparison of the impact of the two compounds on macrofouling organisms from the different marine habitats examined in this study indicates a distinction associated with the organisms’ different ecosystems. The Red Sea mussels and bryozoans, representing a tropical marine ecosystem, yielded the highest efficacy values among tested Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea mussels and bryozoans. View Full-Text
Keywords: fouling; antifouling nano-structured compounds; layered double hidroxides; silica mesoporous nanocapsules; pyrithione fouling; antifouling nano-structured compounds; layered double hidroxides; silica mesoporous nanocapsules; pyrithione

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Gutner-Hoch, E.; Martins, R.; Oliveira, T.; Maia, F.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Loureiro, S.; Piller, C.; Preiss, I.; Weis, M.; Larroze, S.B.; Teixeira, T.; Tedim, J.; Benayahu, Y. Antimacrofouling Efficacy of Innovative Inorganic Nanomaterials Loaded with Booster Biocides. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6, 6.

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