Extension of Small-Scale Postharvest Horticulture Technologies—A Model Training and Services Center
1.1. Background Information
1.2. Description of the Model
- a site for extension workers and local postharvest trainers to meet with growers and others working along the value chains to provide training to improve local capacity and knowledge on improved produce handling, harvesting, sorting/grading, packing, cooling, storage, food safety, processing, and marketing practices
- a training venue with permanent demonstrations for observing improved, cost-effective small-scale postharvest handling practices, facilities, and equipment
- a site where local private companies can demonstrate and explain the benefits of their goods and services related to improved postharvest handling, processing, or storage
- a retail shop with postharvest tools and supplies, packages, plastic crates, and other goods that can be purchased locally at reasonable prices
- a place where people can come to ask questions or get advice on how to use improved postharvest practices, learn about costs and benefits and marketing options
- a place where growers or traders can pay a small fee for services such as having their produce packed in improved containers, cooled and/or stored for a few days before marketing, leasing of a small insulated transport vehicle, using a solar dryer to produce dried fruits or vegetable snack products, etc.
2. The Evaluation Plan and Objectives
2.1. Data Collection Methods
2.2. Objectives of the Ex Post Facto Evaluation
- Objective 1: To determine the major capacity building outcomes and impact of the Postharvest Training and Services Center (PTSC) and Training the Trainers (ToT) program
- Objective 2: To identify best practices in the management of the PTSC and its extension services
- Objective 3: To identify problems, concerns, and obstacles to making the PTSC a sustainable and replicable model
|Target Groups||Size of Target Group||Email Surveys||Face-to-Face Interviews||Phone Interviews||Site Visits for Observations||Response Rate|
|Training of trainers (ToT) participants||36 in total||x||92%|
|Local trainees (farmers and food processors)||50 people, random cluster sample selected from a population of 500 trainees||x||x||100%|
|Postharvest trainers||14 in total||x||x||100%|
|PTSC administrators and managers||7 in total||x||x||100%|
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Training of Postharvest Trainers
3.2. Postharvest Training and Demonstrations for Local Farmers in Tanzania
- Use of shade
- Hand-washing/hygiene practices
- Improved containers (plastic crates, half-size wooden crates)
- Zero energy cool chamber (for storage of fresh fruits and vegetables)
- Solar drying
- Cold room equipped with CoolBot
- A simple hydro-cooler with recirculation system
- Improved wooden crates (smaller, smooth on the inside)
- Liners for use in traditional containers
- Wakati (a high relative humidity % storage container; under study with Arne Pauwels of Belgium)
|Demonstrations||No. that have seen it||Rated the demo as most useful||Rated the demo as least useful||No. that have been using the new or improved practice|
3.3. Adaptive Research
3.4. Postharvest Services at the PTSC in Arusha
3.5. Retail Sales of Tools, Packages, and Postharvest Supplies
|If the PTSC did not exist:||Where would you go for postharvest training?||Where would you go for postharvest demos/advice?||Where would you buy postharvest goods and services?|
|I don’t know||7||15||3|
|Other sources/charity organizations||21||16||16|
4. Timelines and Budgets
- Use of shade—low cost ($50 to $100 for materials and labor), could use any type of local materials to make thatch or a woven roofing/poles structure
- Gentle handling—very low cost, mostly show and tell, $30 for a commercially purchased harvesting bag, much less ($5 to $6) to make one locally
- Use of maturity indices (color charts, sizes)—very low cost (for making color copies, lamination, strong wire to make sizing rings)
- Improved containers (liners, cushions, crates, etc.)—very low cost (a few cents for a paper liner, $5 to $7 for a plastic crate)
- ZECC—$400 to $500 for bricks, sand, shade covering, labor, and water tank to construct a new Zero Energy Cool Chamber
- Solar drying practices—$300 to $400 for materials and labor to construct a new direct-style solar drier with six large trays
5. Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1. Description of Outcomes and Benefits of PTSC Extension/Outreach Results
|Interviewee No., Sex, Age, Job Type, Site||Crop and Quantity, Traditional vs. New Practices||Relative Cost, % Losses, Market Value Using Traditional Practice||Relative Cost, % Losses, Market Value Using New Practice||Changes in Income per Load||ROI|
|#12, male, 52, farmer/processor, Nshupu||Tomatoes, 7600 kg. Selling without grading vs. sorting/grading before selling||0 Tsh, 40% 2,850,000 Tsh||160,000 Tsh 10% 3,600,000 Tsh||+590,000 Tsh (US $327) per 7600 kg||Immediate|
|#20, male, 54, farmer/marketer, Kindi||Cucumbers, 150 kg. Selling without sorting/grading vs. gentle harvest, sorting and grading before selling||0 Tsh 20% 16,000 Tsh||3000 Tsh 5% 30,000 Tsh||+11,000 Tsh (US$ 6.11) per 150 kg||Immediate|
|#48, female, 31, farmer/processor/marketer, Poli-Ndatu||Chinese cabbage, 100 kg. Selling without grading vs. grading before selling||0 Tsh 20% 20,000 Tsh||2000 Tsh 5% 35,000 Tsh||+13,000 Tsh (US$ 7.22) per 100 kg||Immediate|
|#49, female, 45, farmer/processor, Nshupu||African nightshade, 10 kg. Harvesting under full sun vs. harvesting in morning when temperature is lower||0 Tsh (did not consider her labor to be a cost) 50% 10,000 Tsh||No added cost (her labor only) 5% 20,000 Tsh||+10,000 Tsh (US$ 5.56) per 10 kg||Immediate|
5.2. Identification of Constraints and Implementation Issues/Concerns
- a packinghouse for 3500 members of a vegetable cooperative in Lushoto named LUKOVEG (MAFC and the local governmental authority)
- a large citrus/mango packinghouse/training center near Dar es Salaam for a farmers’ association of 2000 members (MAFC)
- the Prime Minister’s Office/African Development Bank’s Market Infrastructure, Value Addition and Rural Finance (MIVARF) project with postharvest training and value addition centers in 12 districts in 2013–2014, with many more planned for 2014–2015, and
- MAFC/Tanzania Horticultural Association (TAHA) Farmer Services Centers (FSCs) under construction in four districts in southern Tanzania and Zanzibar, plus a plan for a large packinghouse to be located near the coast north of Dar es Salaam.
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Kitinoja, L.; Barrett, D.M. Extension of Small-Scale Postharvest Horticulture Technologies—A Model Training and Services Center. Agriculture 2015, 5, 441-455. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture5030441
Kitinoja L, Barrett DM. Extension of Small-Scale Postharvest Horticulture Technologies—A Model Training and Services Center. Agriculture. 2015; 5(3):441-455. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture5030441Chicago/Turabian Style
Kitinoja, Lisa, and Diane M. Barrett. 2015. "Extension of Small-Scale Postharvest Horticulture Technologies—A Model Training and Services Center" Agriculture 5, no. 3: 441-455. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture5030441