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Open AccessArticle

Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Fungal Communities in Wheat Grain as Influenced by Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers: A Case Study

1
Department of Agroecosystems, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Łódzki 3, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Entomology, Phytopathology and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-721 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2020, 10(6), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10060239
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Functions of Endophytic Fungi in Crop Species)
Waste-based fertilizers provide an alternative to fertilizers made from non-renewable phosphate rock. Fungal communities colonizing the grain of spring wheat fertilized with preparation from sewage sludge ash and dried animal blood (Rec) and the same fertilizer activated by Bacillus megaterium (Bio) were evaluated against those resulting from superphosphate (SP) and no phosphorus (control, C0) treatments. The Illumina MiSeq sequencing system helped to group fungal communities into three clades. Clade 1 (communities from C0, Bio 60 and 80, Rec 80 and SP 40 kg P2O5 ha−1 treatments) was characterized by a high prevalence of Alternaria infectoria, Monographella nivalis and Gibberella tricincta pathogens. Clade 2 (Bio 40 kg, Rec 40 and 60 kg, and SP 60 kg P2O5 ha−1) was characterized by the lowest amount of the identified pathogens. Commercial SP applied at 80 kg P2O5 ha−1 (clade 3) induced the most pronounced changes in the fungal taxa colonizing wheat grain relative to non-fertilized plants. The above was attributed mainly to the lower amount of A. infectoria and higher counts of species of the family Nectriaceae, mostly epiphytic pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium poae. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alternaria; Fusarium; Illumina MiSeq; secondary raw materials Alternaria; Fusarium; Illumina MiSeq; secondary raw materials
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Jastrzębska, M.; Wachowska, U.; Kostrzewska, M.K. Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Fungal Communities in Wheat Grain as Influenced by Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers: A Case Study. Agriculture 2020, 10, 239.

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