Next Article in Journal
Automated Nociceptive Withdrawal Reflex Measurements Reveal Normal Reflex Thresholds and Augmented Pain Ratings in Patients with Fibromyalgia
Previous Article in Journal
Erectile Dysfunction after Kidney Transplantation
Open AccessArticle

Low Galectin-3 Expression Level in Primary Tumors Is Associated with Metastasis in T1 Lung Adenocarcinoma

1
Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, E-Da Hospital, and College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
2
Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
3
Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80756, Taiwan
4
Clinical Medicine Research Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061990
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 18 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 25 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
Background and objective: Although nodal and distant metastasis is rare in T1 lung adenocarcinoma, it is related to poor clinical prognosis. Association between galectin-3 (Gal-3) expression level, and clinical outcome of T1 lung adenocarcinoma has not been clarified. Methods: From January 2009 to December 2014, 74 patients with surgically resected T1 lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Patient outcomes were followed up until December 2019. Gal-3 expression level in primary tumors was assessed immunohistochemically and evaluated based on the staining intensity and percentage. Patient characteristics and correlation between Gal-3 expression level and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Results: Low Gal-3 expression was associated with increased metastatic events (p = 0.03), especially distant metastasis (p = 0.007), and mortality rate (p = 0.04). Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that high Gal-3 expression level was associated with favorable recurrence-free survival in T1 lung adenocarcinoma (log-rank p = 0.048) and T1a (≤ 2 cm, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7th edition) lung adenocarcinoma (log-rank p = 0.043). Gal-3 expression along with tumor size showed a larger area under curve (AUC) than tumor size alone for predicting metastatic events (AUC = 0.747 vs. 0.681) and recurrence (AUC = 0.813 vs. 0.766) in T1a lung adenocarcinoma in the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Conclusion: Low Gal-3 expression level in primary tumors was remarkably associated with increased metastatic events and reduced recurrence-free survival in T1 lung adenocarcinoma. We suggest that Gal-3 expression level in addition to tumor size may potentially be stronger than tumor size alone in predicting metastasis in T1a lung adenocarcinoma patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: galectin 3; adenocarcinoma of lung; neoplasm metastasis; survival galectin 3; adenocarcinoma of lung; neoplasm metastasis; survival
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kao, M.-W.; Su, Y.-C.; Liang, P.-I.; Wu, Y.-Y.; Hong, T.-M. Low Galectin-3 Expression Level in Primary Tumors Is Associated with Metastasis in T1 Lung Adenocarcinoma. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1990.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop