Ph+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disease whose clinical course is characterized by progression disease from the early chronic phase (CP) to the fatal blastic phase (BP). This programmed course is closely related to the translocation t(9;22)(q22;q11) and the resulting BCR-ABL1 fusion protein (p210) that drives the leukemic transformation of hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, the cure of CML can only pass through the abrogation of the Ph+ clone. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) and interferon-alpha (IFNα) have been proven to reduce the Ph+ clone in a limited proportion of CML population and this translated in a lower rate of progression to BP and in a significant prolongation of survival. Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), lastly introduced in 2000, by preventing the disease blastic transformation and significantly prolonging the survival in up to 90% of the patient population, radically changed the fate of CML. The current therapy with TKIs induces a chronicization of the disease but several criticisms still persist, and the most relevant one is the sustainability of long-term therapy with TKIs in terms of compliance, toxicity and costs. The perspectives concern the optimization of therapy according to the age, the risk of disease, the potency and the safety profiles of the TKIs. The prolongation of survival is the most important end point which should be guaranteed to all patients. The treatment free remission (TFR) is the new goal that we would like to give to an increasing number of patients. The cure remains the main objective of CML therapy.
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