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Open AccessArticle

Restless Leg Syndrome in Peripheral Artery Disease: Prevalence among Patients with Claudication and Benefits from Low-Intensity Exercise

1
Department of Biomedical and Surgical Specialties Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
2
Department of Nursing, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Reina Sofía University Hospital, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
3
Unit of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, University Hospital of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
4
Unit of Translational Surgery, University Hospital of Ferrara, 44124 Ferrara, Italy
5
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(9), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8091403
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 3 September 2019 / Accepted: 4 September 2019 / Published: 6 September 2019
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) disrupts sleep, affecting the quality of life of patients with various chronic diseases. We assessed the prevalence of RLS in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients and the effects of a pain-free exercise program. A total of 286 patients with claudication were enrolled in a home-based low-intensity exercise program prescribed at the hospital. RLS was determined through standardized questions. Hemodynamics, degree of calf deoxygenation, and mobility were assessed using the ankle-brachial-index, a treadmill test assisted by near-infrared spectroscopy and the 6-min walk test, respectively. During hospital visits, persistence of RLS, adherence to exercise, hemodynamics, and mobility were assessed. At the enrollment, 101 patients (35%) presented RLS, with higher prevalence among females (p = 0.032). Compared to RLS-free patients, they showed similar hemodynamics but more severe calf deoxygenation (p < 0.001) and lower mobility (p = 0.040). Eighty-seven RLS patients (83%) reported the disappearance of symptoms after 39 (36−70) days of exercise. This subgroup, compared to nonresponders, showed higher adherence (p < 0.001), hemodynamic (p = 0.041), and mobility improvements (p = 0.003). RLS symptoms were frequent in PAD but were reduced by a pain-free walking exercise aimed at inducing peripheral aerobic adaptations. The concomitant recovery of sleep and mobility may represent a synergistic action against the cardiovascular risk in PAD. View Full-Text
Keywords: peripheral artery disease; restless leg syndrome; exercise therapy; rehabilitation; spectroscopy; near-infrared peripheral artery disease; restless leg syndrome; exercise therapy; rehabilitation; spectroscopy; near-infrared
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Lamberti, N.; López-Soto, P.J.; Rodríguez-Borrego, M.A.; Straudi, S.; Basaglia, N.; Zamboni, P.; Manfredini, R.; Manfredini, F. Restless Leg Syndrome in Peripheral Artery Disease: Prevalence among Patients with Claudication and Benefits from Low-Intensity Exercise. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1403.

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