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Open AccessArticle

Elevated Systemic L-Kynurenine/L-Tryptophan Ratio and Increased IL-1 Beta and Chemokine (CX3CL1, MCP-1) Proinflammatory Mediators in Patients with Long-Term Titanium Dental Implants

1
Departamento de Farmacología, Farmacognosia y Botánica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (U.C.M), c/Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Centro CIROM, Centro de Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral Multidisciplinaria, 30001 Murcia, Spain
3
Department of Neuroanatomy, Instituto Cajal (CSIC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J.J.M. and M.E.C. equally contribute as first author.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(9), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8091368
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 2 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Implant Dentistry—Trends, Challenges and Innovations)
Titanium is the mean biocompatible metal found in dental titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V). The safety of certain dental biomaterial amalgams has been questioned in patients. The levels of several systemic cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-4: pg/mL) and chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble fractalkine (CX3CL1: pg/mL) were determined using ELISA and compared between these study groups. The study included 30 controls without dental materials (cont), 57 patients with long-term titanium dental implants plus amalgams (A + I group) as well as 55 patients with long-term dental amalgam alone (A group). All patients (except controls) have had dental titanium implants (Ti-6Al-4V) and/or amalgams for at least 10 years (average: 15 years). We evaluated whether systemic levels of cytokines/chemokines, kyn/L-trp ratio and aromatic amino acid levels (HPLC: mM/L, Phe, L-Trp, His, Treo) could be altered in patients with long-term dental titanium and/or amalgams. These systemic markers were evaluated in 142 patients. The A + I group had higher L-Kynurenine/L-Tryptophan ratios than patients with long-term dental amalgam fillings alone (A). In addition, levels of IL-1 Beta cytokine, CX3CL1 and MCP-1 chemokines were higher in the A + I group than in the A group (A). The increased L-kyn/L-trp ratio and MCP-1 and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) elevations could suggest enhanced chemotactic responses by these chemokines in the A + I group. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acids; L-Kyn/L-Trp; His; kynurenine pathways; titanium dental implants and dental amalgam fillings; tryptophan (L-Trp), cytokines; IDO; chemokines; inflammation; cytokines; chemotaxis; CX3CL1 (fractalkine); melatonin; dentistry and medical toxicology amino acids; L-Kyn/L-Trp; His; kynurenine pathways; titanium dental implants and dental amalgam fillings; tryptophan (L-Trp), cytokines; IDO; chemokines; inflammation; cytokines; chemotaxis; CX3CL1 (fractalkine); melatonin; dentistry and medical toxicology
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Merino, J.J.; Cabaña-Muñoz, M.E.; Toledano Gasca, A.; Garcimartín, A.; Benedí, J.; Camacho-Alonso, F.; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, J.M. Elevated Systemic L-Kynurenine/L-Tryptophan Ratio and Increased IL-1 Beta and Chemokine (CX3CL1, MCP-1) Proinflammatory Mediators in Patients with Long-Term Titanium Dental Implants. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1368.

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