Next Article in Journal
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Is Associated with Less Oxidative Stress and Faster Recovery of Antioxidant Capacity than Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement
Next Article in Special Issue
Assessment of Inner Retinal Layers and Choroidal Thickness in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study
Previous Article in Journal
Characteristics of Patients Showing Discrepancy Between Bruch’s Membrane Opening-Minimum Rim Width and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness
Previous Article in Special Issue
Retinal Blood Velocity and Flow in Early Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy
Open AccessReview

Mitochondrial Structural Changes in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy

1
Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(9), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8091363
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 29 August 2019 / Published: 1 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Retinopathy: Biomolecules and Pathophysiology)
At the core of proper mitochondrial functionality is the maintenance of its structure and morphology. Physical changes in mitochondrial structure alter metabolic pathways inside mitochondria, affect mitochondrial turnover, disturb mitochondrial dynamics, and promote mitochondrial fragmentation, ultimately triggering apoptosis. In high glucose condition, increased mitochondrial fragmentation contributes to apoptotic death in retinal vascular and Müller cells. Although alterations in mitochondrial morphology have been detected in several diabetic tissues, it remains to be established in the vascular cells of the diabetic retina. From a mechanistic standpoint, our current work supports the notion that increased expression of fission genes and decreased expression of fusion genes are involved in promoting excessive mitochondrial fragmentation. While mechanistic insights are only beginning to reveal how high glucose alters mitochondrial morphology, the consequences are clearly seen as release of cytochrome c from fragmented mitochondria triggers apoptosis. Current findings raise the prospect of targeting excessive mitochondrial fragmentation as a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of diabetic retinopathy. While biochemical and epigenetic changes have been reported to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, this review focuses on alterations in mitochondrial morphology, and their impact on mitochondrial function and pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondrial morphology; diabetes; retina; diabetic retinopathy mitochondrial morphology; diabetes; retina; diabetic retinopathy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Roy, S.; Kim, D.; Sankaramoorthy, A. Mitochondrial Structural Changes in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1363.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop