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Open AccessArticle

Hybrid Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy–Surgical Technique and Results

Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Medical Center–University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine–University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(7), 978;
Received: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surgical Management of Gastric Cancer)
PDF [3273 KB, uploaded 5 July 2019]


Background: Hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) has been proven to be superior when compared with open esophagectomy, with a significant reduction of postoperative morbidity. In HMIE, the laparotomy is replaced by a minimally invasive laparoscopic approach. The radical mediastinal resection plus reconstruction is performed by a thoracic approach through a muscle-sparing thoracotomy. In this instructional article, we describe the surgical technique of HMIE in detail in order to facilitate possible adoption of the procedure by other surgeons. In addition, we give the monocentric results of our own practice. Methods: Between 2013 and 2018, HMIE was performed in 157 patients. The morbidity and mortality data of the procedure is shown in a retrospective monocentric analysis. Results: Overall, 54% of patients had at least one perioperative complication. Anastomotic leak was evident in 1.9%, and a single patient had focal conduit necrosis of the gastric pull-up. Postoperative pulmonary morbidity was 31%. Pneumonia was found in 17%. The 90 day mortality was 2.5%. Wound infection rate was 3%, and delayed gastric emptying occurred in 17% of patients. In follow up, 12.7% presented with diaphragmatic herniation of the bowel, requiring laparoscopic hernia reduction and hiatal reconstruction and colopexy several months after surgery. Conclusion: HMIE is a highly reliable technique, not only for the resection part but especially in terms of safety in reconstruction and anastomosis. For esophageal surgeons with experience in minimally invasive anti-reflux procedures and obesity surgery, HMIE is easy and fast to learn and adopt. View Full-Text
Keywords: esophagectomy; minimally invasive surgery; hybrid procedures; esophageal cancer; surgical technique esophagectomy; minimally invasive surgery; hybrid procedures; esophageal cancer; surgical technique

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Kuvendjiska, J.; Marjanovic, G.; Glatz, T.; Kulemann, B.; Hoeppner, J. Hybrid Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy–Surgical Technique and Results. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 978.

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