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MicroRNAs in Smoking-Related Carcinogenesis: Biomarkers, Functions, and Therapy

1
Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521, Japan
2
Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Nara City Hospital, Nara 634-8521, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(5), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7050098
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Medicine)
Long-term heavy cigarette smoking is a well-known high-risk factor for carcinogenesis in various organs such as the head and neck, lungs, and urinary bladder. Furthermore, cigarette smoking can systemically accelerate aging, and as the result, promoting carcinogenesis via changing the host microenvironment. Various inflammatory factors, hormones, and chemical mediators induced by smoking mediate carcinoma-related molecules and induce carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short noncoding RNA molecules that bind to mRNAs and inhibit their expression. Cigarette smoke induces the expression of various miRNAs, many of which are known to function in the post-transcriptional silencing of anticancer molecules, thereby leading to smoking-induced carcinogenesis. Analysis of expression profiles of smoking-induced miRNAs can help identify biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of smoking-related cancers and prediction of therapeutic responses, as well as revealing promising therapeutic targets. Here, we introduce the most recent and useful findings of miRNA analyses focused on lung cancer and urinary bladder cancer, which are strongly associated with cigarette smoking, and discuss the utility of miRNAs as clinical biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNA; smoking; carcinogenesis; lung carcinoma; bladder carcinoma microRNA; smoking; carcinogenesis; lung carcinoma; bladder carcinoma
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Fujii, T.; Shimada, K.; Nakai, T.; Ohbayashi, C. MicroRNAs in Smoking-Related Carcinogenesis: Biomarkers, Functions, and Therapy. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 98.

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