Recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) and its neurological sequelae have been the focus of a large number of studies, indicating cognitive, structural, and functional brain alterations. However, studies often focused on single outcome measures in small cohorts of specific populations only. We conducted a multimodal evaluation of the impact of recurrent mTBI on a broad range of cognitive functions, regional brain volume, white matter integrity, and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in young and older adults in the chronic stage (>6 months after the last mTBI). Seventeen young participants with mTBI (age: 24.2 ± 2.8 (mean ± SD)) and 21 group-wise matched healthy controls (age: 25.8 ± 5.4 (mean ± SD)), as well as 17 older participants with mTBI (age: 62.7 ± 7.7 (mean ± SD)) and 16 group-wise matched healthy controls (age: 61.7 ± 5.9 (mean ± SD)) were evaluated. We found significant differences in the verbal fluency between young participants with mTBI and young healthy controls. Furthermore, differences in the regional volume of precuneus and medial orbitofrontal gyrus between participants with mTBI and controls for both age groups were seen. A significant age by group interaction for the right hippocampal volume was noted, indicating an accelerated hippocampal volume loss in older participants with mTBI. Other cognitive parameters, white matter integrity, and RSFC showed no significant differences. We confirmed some of the previously reported detrimental effects of recurrent mTBI, but also demonstrated inconspicuous findings for the majority of parameters.
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