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The Potential of Vitamin D-Regulated Intracellular Signaling Pathways as Targets for Myeloid Leukemia Therapy

1
Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14a, Wroclaw 50-383, Poland
2
Department of Pathology, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 185 South Orange Ave., Newark, NJ 17101, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lucy A. Godley
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(4), 504-534; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4040504
Received: 20 September 2014 / Revised: 6 January 2015 / Accepted: 6 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AML in the Molecular Age: From Biology to Clinical Management)
The current standard regimens for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are curative in less than half of patients; therefore, there is a great need for innovative new approaches to this problem. One approach is to target new treatments to the pathways that are instrumental to cell growth and survival with drugs that are less harmful to normal cells than to neoplastic cells. In this review, we focus on the MAPK family of signaling pathways and those that are known to, or potentially can, interact with MAPKs, such as PI3K/AKT/FOXO and JAK/STAT. We exemplify the recent studies in this field with specific relevance to vitamin D and its derivatives, since they have featured prominently in recent scientific literature as having anti-cancer properties. Since microRNAs also are known to be regulated by activated vitamin D, this is also briefly discussed here, as are the implications of the emerging acquisition of transcriptosome data and potentiation of the biological effects of vitamin D by other compounds. While there are ongoing clinical trials of various compounds that affect signaling pathways, more studies are needed to establish the clinical utility of vitamin D in the treatment of cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; targeted therapy; differentiation; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; mitogen-activated kinases acute myeloid leukemia; targeted therapy; differentiation; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; mitogen-activated kinases
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Gocek, E.; Studzinski, G.P. The Potential of Vitamin D-Regulated Intracellular Signaling Pathways as Targets for Myeloid Leukemia Therapy. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 504-534.

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