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Review

Association between Oral Hygiene and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, 4028 Debrecen, Hungary
2
Doctoral School of Health Sciences, University of Debrecen, 4028 Debrecen, Hungary
3
Department of Dental Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60286, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerhard Schmalz
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(13), 2873; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132873
Received: 25 April 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 18 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
Emerging evidence has linked poor oral hygiene to metabolic syndrome (MetS), but previously, no summary of evidence has been conducted on the topic. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the associations of oral hygiene status and care with MetS. A systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases from inception to 17 March 2021, and examination of reference lists was conducted to identify eligible observational studies. A random-effects model was applied to pool the effects of oral hygiene status and care on MetS. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria and had sufficient methodological quality. Good oral hygiene status (OR = 0.30 (0.13–0.66); I2 = 91%), frequent tooth brushing (OR = 0.68 (0.58–0.80); I2 = 89%), and frequent interdental cleaning (OR = 0.89 (0.81–0.99); I2 = 27%) were associated with a lower risk of MetS. Only one study examined the association between dental visits and MetS (OR = 1.10 (0.77–1.55)). Our findings suggested that there might be inverse associations of oral hygiene status, tooth-brushing frequency, and interdental cleaning with MetS. However, substantial heterogeneity for tooth-brushing frequency and inconsistent results for oral hygiene status in subgroup analyses were observed. There was insufficient evidence for the association between dental visits and MetS. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate these associations. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral hygiene; dental plaque; oral bacteria; tooth brushing; interdental cleaning; dental visit; metabolic syndrome oral hygiene; dental plaque; oral bacteria; tooth brushing; interdental cleaning; dental visit; metabolic syndrome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santoso, C.M.A.; Ketti, F.; Bramantoro, T.; Zsuga, J.; Nagy, A. Association between Oral Hygiene and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2873. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132873

AMA Style

Santoso CMA, Ketti F, Bramantoro T, Zsuga J, Nagy A. Association between Oral Hygiene and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(13):2873. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132873

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santoso, Cornelia M.A., Fera Ketti, Taufan Bramantoro, Judit Zsuga, and Attila Nagy. 2021. "Association between Oral Hygiene and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 13: 2873. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132873

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