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Article

Air Pollution Increases the Incidence of Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms among Polish Children

1
Department of Pediatric Respiratory Diseases and Allergy, Medical University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 63A, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Informatics and Environment Quality Research, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro- and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 20 Nowowiejska Street, 00-653 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Quantitative Methods and Environmental Management, Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Quality Science, Gdynia Maritime University, 83 Morska Street, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
4
ARC Rynek i Opinia, Market Research Institute, Słowackiego 12, 01-627 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Monique HW Frings-Dresen
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(10), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102150
Received: 15 March 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 13 May 2021 / Published: 16 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Studies on the Impact of Air Pollutants on Human Health)
A substantial proportion of airway disease’s global burden is attributable to exposure to air pollution. This study aimed to investigate the association between air pollution, assessed as concentrations of particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 on the upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS) in children. A nation-wide, questionnaire-based study was conducted in Poland in winter 2018/2019 in a population of 1475 children, comparing URTS throughout the study period with publicly available data on airborne particulate matter. A general regression model was used to evaluate the lag effects between daily changes in PM10 and PM2.5 and the number of children reporting URTS and their severity. PM10 and PM2.5 in the single-pollutant models had significant effects on the number of children reporting URTS. The prevalence of URTS: “runny nose”, “sneezing” and “cough” was positively associated with 12-week mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. In the locations with the highest average concentration of PM, the symptoms of runny nose, cough and sneezing were increased by 10%, 9% and 11%, respectively, compared to the cities with the lowest PM concentrations. This study showed that moderate-term exposure (12 week observation period) to air pollution was associated with an increased risk of URTS among children aged 3–12 years in Poland. These findings may influence public debate and future policy at the national and international levels to improve air quality in cities and improve children’s health. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; respiratory infections; upper respiratory tract symptoms; air pollution; children particulate matter; respiratory infections; upper respiratory tract symptoms; air pollution; children
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ratajczak, A.; Badyda, A.; Czechowski, P.O.; Czarnecki, A.; Dubrawski, M.; Feleszko, W. Air Pollution Increases the Incidence of Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms among Polish Children. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102150

AMA Style

Ratajczak A, Badyda A, Czechowski PO, Czarnecki A, Dubrawski M, Feleszko W. Air Pollution Increases the Incidence of Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms among Polish Children. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(10):2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ratajczak, Aleksandra, Artur Badyda, Piotr O. Czechowski, Adam Czarnecki, Michał Dubrawski, and Wojciech Feleszko. 2021. "Air Pollution Increases the Incidence of Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms among Polish Children" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 10: 2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102150

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