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Article

The Association of Periodontitis and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Prospective Population-Based Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

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Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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Department of Periodontics, Preventive and Restorative Dentistry, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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Epidemiological Study Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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Department of Vascular Medicine, University Heart and Vascular Center UKE Hamburg, Research Group GermanVasc, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center UKE Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The two authors share first authorship.
The two authors share last authorship.
Academic Editor: Matthias Kapischke
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(10), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102048
Received: 9 April 2021 / Revised: 3 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 11 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Artery Disease: Epidemiology and Global Perspectives)
Objectives: Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and periodontitis are common chronic diseases, which together affect almost 1 billion people worldwide. There is growing evidence suggesting a relationship between chronic inflammatory conditions such as periodontitis and PAOD. This study aims to determine an association between both entities using high quality research data and multiple phenotypes derived from an epidemiological cohort study. Design: This population-based cross-sectional cohort study included data from 3271 participants aged between 45 and 74 years enrolled in the Hamburg City Health Study (NCT03934957). Material & Methods: An ankle-brachial-index below 0.9, color-coded ultrasound of the lower extremity arteries, and survey data was used to identify participants with either asymptomatic or symptomatic PAOD. Periodontitis data was collected at six sites per tooth and included the probing depth, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss, and bleeding on probing index. Multivariate analyses using logistic regression models were adjusted for variables including age, sex, smoking, education, diabetes, and hypertension. Results: The baseline characteristics differed widely between participants neither affected by periodontitis nor PAOD vs. the group where both PAOD and severe periodontitis were identified. A higher rate of males, higher age, lower education level, smoking, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease was observed in the group affected by both diseases. After adjusting, presence of severe periodontitis (odds ratio 1.265; 97.5% CI 1.006–1.591; p = 0.045) was independently associated with PAOD. Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study, an independent association between periodontitis and PAOD was revealed. The results of the current study emphasize a potential for preventive medicine in an extremely sensitive target population. Future studies should determine the underlying factors modifying the relationship between both diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: peripheral arterial disease; periodontitis; cohort studies; population health; health services research; smoking; cardiovascular disease; risk factors; ankle brachial index; diabetes peripheral arterial disease; periodontitis; cohort studies; population health; health services research; smoking; cardiovascular disease; risk factors; ankle brachial index; diabetes
MDPI and ACS Style

Jacobi, N.; Walther, C.; Borof, K.; Heydecke, G.; Seedorf, U.; Lamprecht, R.; Beikler, T.; Debus, S.E.; Waldeyer, C.; Blankenberg, S.; Schnabel, R.B.; Aarabi, G.; Behrendt, C.-A. The Association of Periodontitis and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Prospective Population-Based Cross-Sectional Cohort Study. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2048. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102048

AMA Style

Jacobi N, Walther C, Borof K, Heydecke G, Seedorf U, Lamprecht R, Beikler T, Debus SE, Waldeyer C, Blankenberg S, Schnabel RB, Aarabi G, Behrendt C-A. The Association of Periodontitis and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Prospective Population-Based Cross-Sectional Cohort Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(10):2048. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102048

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jacobi, Nicole, Carolin Walther, Katrin Borof, Guido Heydecke, Udo Seedorf, Ragna Lamprecht, Thomas Beikler, Sebastian E. Debus, Christoph Waldeyer, Stefan Blankenberg, Renate B. Schnabel, Ghazal Aarabi, and Christian-Alexander Behrendt. 2021. "The Association of Periodontitis and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Prospective Population-Based Cross-Sectional Cohort Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 10: 2048. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102048

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