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Current and Emerging Techniques for High-Pressure Membrane Integrity Testing

1
Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities, Victoria University, Werribee 3030, Australia
2
Stantec, Washington, DC 20005-3957, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2018, 8(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes8030060
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
Ideally, pressure driven membrane processes used in wastewater treatment such as reverse osmosis and nanofiltration should provide a complete physical barrier to the passage of pathogens such as enteric viruses. In reality, manufacturing imperfections combined with membrane ageing and damage can result in breaches as small as 20 to 30 nm in diameter, sufficient to allow enteric viruses to contaminate the treated water and compromise public health. In addition to continuous monitoring, frequent demonstration of the integrity of membranes is required to provide assurance that the barrier to the passage of such contaminants is intact. Existing membrane integrity monitoring systems, however, are limited and health regulators typically credit high-pressure membrane systems with only 2 log10 virus rejection, well below their capability. A reliable real-time method that can recognize the true rejection potential of membrane systems greater than 4 log10 has not yet been established. This review provides a critical evaluation of the current methods of integrity monitoring and identifies novel approaches that have the potential to provide accurate, representative virus removal efficiency estimates. View Full-Text
Keywords: reverse osmosis; nanofiltration; membrane integrity reverse osmosis; nanofiltration; membrane integrity
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Ostarcevic, E.R.; Jacangelo, J.; Gray, S.R.; Cran, M.J. Current and Emerging Techniques for High-Pressure Membrane Integrity Testing. Membranes 2018, 8, 60.

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