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Free Standing, Large-Area Silicon Nitride Membranes for High Toxin Clearance in Blood Surrogate for Small-Format Hemodialysis

1
SiMPore, Inc. 150 Lucius Gordon Drive, Suite 110, West Henrietta, NY 14586, USA
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Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
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Mechanical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA
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Biomedical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first Authors.
Membranes 2020, 10(6), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10060119
Received: 5 May 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 6 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Silicon Membranes)
Developing highly-efficient membranes for toxin clearance in small-format hemodialysis presents a fabrication challenge. The miniaturization of fluidics and controls has been the focus of current work on hemodialysis (HD) devices. This approach has not addressed the membrane efficiency needed for toxin clearance in small-format hemodialysis devices. Dr. Willem Kolff built the first dialyzer in 1943 and many changes have been made to HD technology since then. However, conventional HD still uses large instruments with bulky dialysis cartridges made of ~2 m2 of 10 micron thick, tortuous-path membrane material. Portable, wearable, and implantable HD systems may improve clinical outcomes for patients with end-stage renal disease by increasing the frequency of dialysis. The ability of ultrathin silicon-based sheet membranes to clear toxins is tested along with an analytical model predicting long-term multi-pass experiments from single-pass clearance experiments. Advanced fabrication methods are introduced that produce a new type of nanoporous silicon nitride sheet membrane that features the pore sizes needed for middle-weight toxin removal. Benchtop clearance results with sheet membranes (~3 cm2) match a theoretical model and indicate that sheet membranes can reduce (by orders of magnitude) the amount of membrane material required for hemodialysis. This provides the performance needed for small-format hemodialysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanomembranes; model; hemodialysis nanomembranes; model; hemodialysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miller, J.J.; Carter, J.A.; Hill, K.; DesOrmeaux, J.-P.S.; Carter, R.N.; Gaborski, T.R.; Roussie, J.A.; McGrath, J.L.; Johnson, D.G. Free Standing, Large-Area Silicon Nitride Membranes for High Toxin Clearance in Blood Surrogate for Small-Format Hemodialysis. Membranes 2020, 10, 119.

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