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Article

Impact of Transcriptome and Gut Microbiome on the Response of HIV-1 Infected Individuals to a Dendritic Cell-Based HIV Therapeutic Vaccine

1
AIDS Research Group, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
2
Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra. de Pozuelo, 28, Majadahonda, 28222 Madrid, Spain
3
Computational Genomics Groups, Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Plaça d’Eusebi Güell, 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
4
Infectious Diseases—Department, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Wilfried Posch and Doris Wilflingseder
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070694
Received: 11 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Vaccination of HIV-Infected Patients 2.0)
Therapeutic vaccines based on dendritic cells offer a good approach to HIV-specific T-cell responses and partial control of the viral load after antiretroviral therapy interruption. The aim of the present study was to identify mRNA expression profiles and to assess the impact of the gut microbiome composition for predicting the viral load control after antiretroviral therapy interruption. We enrolled 29 patients to receive either placebo or a monocyte-derived dendritic cell vaccine. Patients with a decrease in their viral load of >0.5 log10 copies/mL by 12 weeks after antiretroviral therapy interruption were considered responders. In total, 66 genes were considered differentially expressed between responders and non-responders. Enrichment analysis revealed several upregulated pathways involved in the host defense response to a virus via the type I interferon signaling pathway. Regarding the gut microbiota, responders showed enriched levels of Bacteroidetes (p < 0.005) and Verrucomicrobia (p = 0.017), while non-responders were enriched with Tenericutes (p = 0.049) and Actinobacteria (p < 0.005). We also found important differences at the genus level. However, we did not discover any effect of the dendritic cell vaccine on the transcriptome or the gut microbiota. An alternative analysis did characterize that the microbiota from responders were associated with the metabolic production of short-chain fatty acids, which are key metabolites in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis. The evidence now consistently shows that short-chain fatty acid depletion occurs in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; transcriptomics; dendritic cell; vaccine; antiretroviral; HIV-1 microbiota; transcriptomics; dendritic cell; vaccine; antiretroviral; HIV-1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pastor-Ibáñez, R.; Díez-Fuertes, F.; Sánchez-Palomino, S.; Alcamí, J.; Plana, M.; Torrents, D.; Leal, L.; García, F. Impact of Transcriptome and Gut Microbiome on the Response of HIV-1 Infected Individuals to a Dendritic Cell-Based HIV Therapeutic Vaccine. Vaccines 2021, 9, 694. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070694

AMA Style

Pastor-Ibáñez R, Díez-Fuertes F, Sánchez-Palomino S, Alcamí J, Plana M, Torrents D, Leal L, García F. Impact of Transcriptome and Gut Microbiome on the Response of HIV-1 Infected Individuals to a Dendritic Cell-Based HIV Therapeutic Vaccine. Vaccines. 2021; 9(7):694. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070694

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pastor-Ibáñez, Roque, Francisco Díez-Fuertes, Sonsoles Sánchez-Palomino, Jose Alcamí, Montserrat Plana, David Torrents, Lorna Leal, and Felipe García. 2021. "Impact of Transcriptome and Gut Microbiome on the Response of HIV-1 Infected Individuals to a Dendritic Cell-Based HIV Therapeutic Vaccine" Vaccines 9, no. 7: 694. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070694

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