Data-Driven Decision Making and Proactive Citizen–Scientist Communication: A Cross-Sectional Study on COVID-19 Vaccination Adherence
- To provide an efficient technological solution (digital platform) for communication between scientists and the general population to discuss personalized risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease.
- To use this technological solution to investigate the association between vaccination readiness and the risk of COVID-19 infection or severe disease among the population of Latvia within an exploratory study.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Development of the Digital Platform
2.2. Exploratory Study
2.2.1. Study Design and Population
2.2.2. Statistical Analysis
Then, Severity Percentage = ((SEVERITY ∗ 0.95)/4.6) ∗ 100.
3.1. Structure of the Digital Platform
3.2. Results of the Exploratory Study
Limitations and Strengths of the Study
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Standardized Recommendations for Study Participants
- GENERAL GUIDELINE
- Seek information on COVID-19 in reliable sources. Informative free 24-h telephone for inquiries related to COVID-19: 8345.
- Physical distancing. Keep a distance of 2 m and use a face mask in public places.
- Follow general hygiene requirements. Wash and disinfect hands before touching the face and after touching public surfaces.
- Healthy habits. Cough and sneeze into disposable wipes or bent elbow, and wash or disinfect your hands. If there are the first, even the slightest, signs of illness, stay at home.
- Use a bank card. Use non-cash payments as much as possible.
- Working from home is a security formula. If possible, choose to work remotely. Arrange your workplace to be both emotionally motivating and ergonomic.
- Protect yourself. Avoid social and mass events.
- Download the Stop COVID app. The app is the fastest way to find out if you have been in contact with a COVID-19 carrier. Do not remain ignorant, and make informed decisions. Find out more at https://www.apturicovid.lv/#en (accessed on 18 November 2021).
- Avoid sick people.
- Shop when the store is not crowded or ask someone to do it for you.
- Avoid public transport during traffic congestion.
- Exercise outdoors.
- Get medical attention immediately if you notice any symptoms of COVID-19.
- RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HEALTHY NUTRITION
- Cook at home, plan your purchases in time—create your menu!
- The right strategy for creating a menu—prioritize fresh produce.
- Be aware of the portion size of the food!
- Control your salt and sugar intake, and as much as possible avoid trans fats.
- STAY PHYSICALLY ACTIVE DURING SELF-ISOLATION
- Take short active breaks during the day. Dancing, playing with children, and doing housework like cleaning and gardening are just some of the ways to stay active at home.
- Attend sports classes online. Take advantage of the available online gym classes. Many of them are free and can be found on YouTube. Before trying them, carefully evaluate your abilities!
- Take a walk. Even in small spaces, walking around or walking on the spot can help keep you active.
- Get up. Reduce sedentary time whenever you get up. Ideally, try to interrupt your sitting time every 30 min.
- MENTAL WELL-BEING AT HOME
- Pause. Inhale. Reflect. Inhale slowly through your nose, then exhale slowly. Such breathing is one of the best ways to relieve stress, as it signals to your brain the need for rest.
- Connect with others. Contact people close to you regularly. Tell them how you feel and share your thoughts.
- Limit the time you spend reading the news. Better use this time to relax from your computer screen or take a walk in the fresh air.
- Schedule time for hobbies. If we feel anxious, lonely or low, we can stop doing things that we normally enjoy.
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|Area of Investigation||Questions||Explanation of Measures|
|Demographic and anthropometric questions (9 items)||What is your age group (in years)?|
What is your gender?
What is your marital status?
How many children do you have?
What is your education level?
What is your district of residence?
Are you currently pregnant?
What is your weight?
What is your height?
|7 groups with 10 years range|
Range 0–4 and more
4 categories (from less than high school to postgraduate)
List of Latvia districts
Pregnancy status (yes/no)
|COVID-19-related behavioral factors that could increase the risk of infection (15 items)||What is your smoking status? |
Duration of cigarette smoking
When did you quit smoking?
Which way of transport do you use?
What are your working conditions?
Do you comply with social distancing?
Do you use face mask?
How often do you disinfect your hands?
Do you disinfect your hands before touching your face?
How much do you worry about COVID-19?
What are your living conditions?
What is your profession?
What are your thoughts about the existing COVID-19 restrictions?
Did you in last 14 days travel abroad or visit mass events?
What is in your opinion of the percentage of people that follow the official state COVID-19 restrictions?
|4 categories |
4 categories of living density
4 categories, increased risk of infection in workplace
3 categories, attitude
3 categories (from < 50% to > 80%)
|Personal risk factors that could increase the risk of severe disease (10 items)||Do you have chronic diseases?||10 items (yes/no)|
|Reasons for vaccination (10 items)||Please explain your motivation to vaccinate or not:|
• Fear of COVID-19
• To protect my family and our relatives
• Confidence in our healthcare providers
• Confidence in our pharmaceutical industry
• The COVID-19 vaccines are revolutionary and use innovative technology
• Employer recommends/demands
• Confidence in governmental leadership’s guidance
• It is my civic responsibility to take this vaccine
• Myself or relatives got sick with COVID-19
• Free of charge
|Scaled from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree)|
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|Variable||Category||N = 467|
|Gender, N (%)||333 (71.3)|
|Age, median (IQR)||34.0 (28.0–42.0)|
|Marital status, N (%)||Single||121 (25.9)|
|Married/civil union||306 (65.5)|
|Separated or divorced||17 (3.6)|
|Number of children, N (%)||0||238 (51.1)|
|4 and more||11 (2.4)|
|Education, N (%)||Less than high school||5 (1.1)|
|High school||116 (24.9)|
|Bachelor’s degree||147 (31.5)|
|Master’s degree||193 (41.4)|
|Location||Capital city||289 (62.3)|
|Other cities||49 (10.6)|
|Rural areas||126 (27.2)|
|Type of dwelling||Apartment||358 (76.7)|
|Private home||104 (22.3)|
|Nursing home||1 (0.2)|
|Number of people at home, median (IQR)||2.0 (2.0–4.0)|
|Number of rooms, median (IQR)||3.0 (2.0–4.0)|
|Variable||Category/Factor Affecting Motivation||Yes|
N = 401 (85.9%)
N = 66 (14.1%)
|Smoking status, N (%)||Never||203 (84.9)||36 (15.1)||0.59|
|Not a smoker < 2 years||42 (82.4)||9 (16.4)|
|Smoker < 5 years||26 (92.9)||2 (7.1)|
|Smoker ≥ 5 years||56 (87.5)||8 (12.5)|
|BMI (kg/m2), median (IQR)||23.9 (21.5–27.6)||24.8 (22.1–29.7)||0.24|
|Having chronic disease, N (%)||No||334 (85.4)||57 (14.6)||0.59|
|Yes||67 (88.2)||9 (11.8)|
|Transport, N (%)||Stay at home||55 (88.7)||7 (11.3)||0.09|
|Walking||96 (88.9)||12 (11.1)|
|Private transport||203 (86.4)||32 (13.6)|
|Public transport||47 (75.8)||15 (24.2)|
|Profession, N (%)||Health care||51 (98.1)||1 (1.9)||0.05|
|Direct with people||46 (80.7)||11 (19.3)|
|Indirect with people||23 (85.2)||4 (14.8)|
|Other||281 (84.9)||50 (15.1)|
|Use of disinfecting solution, N (%)||No||92 (76.0)||29 (24.0)||<0.01|
|Sometimes||158 (89.3)||19 (10.7)|
|Yes||151 (89.3)||18 (10.7)|
|Disinfection of surfaces, N (%)||Very often||250 (89.9)||28 (10.1)||<0.01|
|Often||132 (86.8)||20 (13.2)|
|Sometimes||19 (51.4)||18 (48.6)|
|Social distancing, N (%)||No/sometimes||53 (75.7)||17 (24.3)||0.01|
|Yes||348 (87.7)||49 (12.3)|
|Anxiety, N (%)||Never||9 (40.9)||13 (59.1)||<0.01|
|Sometimes||118 (76.1)||37 (23.9)|
|Often||171 (92.4)||14 (7.6)|
|Very often||103 (98.1)||2 (1.9)|
|Risk of infection, median (IQR)||36.7 (32.4–45.3)||38.9 (34.5–45.3)||0.08|
|Risk to get severe disease, median (IQR)||22.7 (16.5–28.9)||24.8 (18.6–31.0)||0.05|
|Variable||Factors||Odds Ratio, OR||95% Confidence Interval, CI||p|
|Risk of infection||1.01||0.97; 1.06||0.63|
|Risk of severe disease||0.99||0.96; 1.03||0.66|
|Factors affecting the motivation to be vaccinated||Fear of COVID-19||1.23||0.91; 1.68||0.18|
|To protect family||0.81||0.54; 1.20||0.29|
|Trust in health care||1.18||0.80; 1.75||0.41|
|Trust in pharmaceutical companies||1.53||1.03; 2.27||0.03|
|Innovative vaccine||1.02||0.72; 1.45||0.89|
|Employer recommendation||1.22||0.92; 1.62||0.16|
|Trust in government||1.14||0.81; 1.62||0.45|
|Social responsibility||1.61||1.16; 2.22||<0.01|
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Syundyukov, E.; Mednis, M.; Zaharenko, L.; Pildegovica, E.; Danovska, I.; Kistkins, S.; Seidmann, A.; Benis, A.; Pirags, V.; Tzivian, L. Data-Driven Decision Making and Proactive Citizen–Scientist Communication: A Cross-Sectional Study on COVID-19 Vaccination Adherence. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1384. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121384
Syundyukov E, Mednis M, Zaharenko L, Pildegovica E, Danovska I, Kistkins S, Seidmann A, Benis A, Pirags V, Tzivian L. Data-Driven Decision Making and Proactive Citizen–Scientist Communication: A Cross-Sectional Study on COVID-19 Vaccination Adherence. Vaccines. 2021; 9(12):1384. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121384Chicago/Turabian Style
Syundyukov, Emil, Martins Mednis, Linda Zaharenko, Eva Pildegovica, Ieva Danovska, Svjatoslavs Kistkins, Abraham Seidmann, Arriel Benis, Valdis Pirags, and Lilian Tzivian. 2021. "Data-Driven Decision Making and Proactive Citizen–Scientist Communication: A Cross-Sectional Study on COVID-19 Vaccination Adherence" Vaccines 9, no. 12: 1384. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121384