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Article

Public Willingness and Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccination at the Initial Stage of Mass Vaccination in China

by 1,2,†, 3,†, 4,†, 3, 3, 3,5, 3, 1,2, 1,2, 3, 3, 1,2,6, 3, 1, 7, 8, 1, 3,*, 1,3,5,* and 1,2,*
1
National Institute on Drug Dependence and Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Dependence, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
2
School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
3
Peking University Sixth Hospital, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, NHC Key Laboratory of Mental Health (Peking University), National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University Sixth Hospital), Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
4
Pain Medicine Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China
5
Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences and PKU-IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
6
Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China
7
Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
8
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Academic Editor: Ralph J. DiClemente
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101172
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
The present study assessed the willingness of the general population to receive COVID-19 vaccines and identified factors that influence vaccine hesitancy and resistance. A national online survey was conducted from 29 January 2021 to 26 April 2021 in China. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors that influence vaccine hesitancy and resistance. Of the 34,041 participants surveyed, 18,810 (55.3%) were willing to get vaccinated, 13,736 (40.3%) were hesitant, and 1495 (4.4%) were resistant. Rates of vaccine acceptance increased over time, with geographical discrepancies in vaccine hesitancy and resistance between provinces in China. Vaccine safety was the greatest concern expressed by most participants (24,461 [71.9%]), and the major reason for participants’ refusing vaccination (974 [65.2%]). Government agencies (23,131 [68.0%]) and social media (20,967 [61.6%]) were the main sources of COVID-19 vaccine information. Compared with vaccination acceptance, female, young and middle-aged, high income, and perceived low-risk of infection were associated with vaccine hesitancy. Histories of allergic reactions to other vaccines and depression symptoms were related to vaccine resistance. Common factors that influenced vaccine hesitancy and resistance were residing in cities and perceiving less protection with vaccines than with other protective measures. The results indicate that the rate of vaccine resistance is relatively low, but vaccine hesitancy is common. Individuals who are female, young and middle-aged, with a high income, and residing in cities are more likely to be hesitant for vaccination and should be the target populations for vaccination campaigns. Specific vaccine messaging from the government and social media could alleviate public concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine resistance; determinants COVID-19 vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine resistance; determinants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Y.-M.; Liu, L.; Sun, J.; Yan, W.; Yuan, K.; Zheng, Y.-B.; Lu, Z.-A.; Liu, L.; Ni, S.-Y.; Su, S.-Z.; Zhu, X.-M.; Zeng, N.; Gong, Y.-M.; Wu, P.; Ran, M.-S.; Leng, Y.; Shi, J.; Shi, L.; Lu, L.; Bao, Y.-P. Public Willingness and Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccination at the Initial Stage of Mass Vaccination in China. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1172. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101172

AMA Style

Zhao Y-M, Liu L, Sun J, Yan W, Yuan K, Zheng Y-B, Lu Z-A, Liu L, Ni S-Y, Su S-Z, Zhu X-M, Zeng N, Gong Y-M, Wu P, Ran M-S, Leng Y, Shi J, Shi L, Lu L, Bao Y-P. Public Willingness and Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccination at the Initial Stage of Mass Vaccination in China. Vaccines. 2021; 9(10):1172. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101172

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Yi-Miao, Lin Liu, Jie Sun, Wei Yan, Kai Yuan, Yong-Bo Zheng, Zheng-An Lu, Lin Liu, Shu-Yu Ni, Si-Zhen Su, Xi-Mei Zhu, Na Zeng, Yi-Miao Gong, Ping Wu, Mao-Sheng Ran, Yue Leng, Jie Shi, Le Shi, Lin Lu, and Yan-Ping Bao. 2021. "Public Willingness and Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccination at the Initial Stage of Mass Vaccination in China" Vaccines 9, no. 10: 1172. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101172

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