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Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Portuguese-Speaking Countries: A Structural Equations Modeling Approach

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Global Health and Tropical Medicine (GHTM), Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 1349-008 Lisbon, Portugal
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Epidemiology Center, Feira de Santana State University, Feira de Santana 44036-900, Brazil
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Institute of Collective Health, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador 40170-110, Brazil
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Health, Education and Work Department, Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia, Santo Antônio de Jesus 44380-000, Brazil
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Data and Knowledge Integration Center for Health—CIDACS, Salvador 41745-715, Brazil
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Human Exposome and Infectious Diseases Network (HEID), University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-902, Brazil
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Center for Research in Collective Health, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão 49100-000, Brazil
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Study Group on Health Care, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador 40110-909, Brazil
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Nursing Department, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina 64049-550, Brazil
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Nursing Department, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60020-181, Brazil
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Global Health and Tropical Medicine (GHTM), Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1349-008 Lisbon, Portugal
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Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-902, Brazil
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Ministério da Saúde de São Tomé e Príncipe, Cidade Capital, Sao Tome and Principe
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Higher Institute of Health Sciences, Agostinho Neto University, Luanda 56910-999, Angola
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brian D. Poole
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101167
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Associated with Vaccine Hesitancy)
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (VH) has caused concerns due to the possible fluctuations that may occur directly impacting the control of the pandemic. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with COVID-19 VH in Portuguese-speaking countries. We developed a web survey (N:6,843) using an online, structured, and validated questionnaire. We used Measurement Models, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Exploratory Structural Equation Models, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the data analysis. The overall prevalence of COVID-19 VH in Portuguese-speaking countries was 21.1%. showed a statistically significant direct effect for VH: vaccine-related conspiracy beliefs (VB) (β = 0.886), perceived stress (PS) (β = 0.313), COVID-19 Misinformation (MIS) (β = 0.259) and individual responses to COVID-19 (CIR) (β = −0.122). The effect of MIS and CIR for VH was greater among men and of PS and VB among women; the effect of PS was greater among the youngest and of VB and CIR among the oldest. No discrepant differences were identified in the analyzed education strata. In conclusion, we found that conspiracy beliefs related to the vaccine strongly influence the decision to hesitate (not to take or to delay the vaccine). Specific characteristics related to gender, age group, social and cognitive vulnerabilities, added to the knowledge acquired, poorly substantiated and/or misrepresented about the COVID-19 vaccine, need to be considered in the planning of vaccination campaigns. It is necessary to respond in a timely, fast, and accurate manner to the challenges posed by vaccine hesitancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccines; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine hesitancy; global health; disinformation; infodemic vaccines; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine hesitancy; global health; disinformation; infodemic
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Sousa, Á.F.L.; Teixeira, J.R.B.; Lua, I.; de Oliveira Souza, F.; Ferreira, A.J.F.; Schneider, G.; de Carvalho, H.E.F.; de Oliveira, L.B.; Lima, S.V.M.A.; de Sousa, A.R.; de Araújo, T.M.E.; Camargo, E.L.S.; Oriá, M.O.B.; Craveiro, I.; de Araújo, T.M.; Mendes, I.A.C.; Ventura, C.A.A.; Sousa, I.; de Oliveira, R.M.; Simão, M.; Fronteira, I. Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Portuguese-Speaking Countries: A Structural Equations Modeling Approach. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1167. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101167

AMA Style

de Sousa ÁFL, Teixeira JRB, Lua I, de Oliveira Souza F, Ferreira AJF, Schneider G, de Carvalho HEF, de Oliveira LB, Lima SVMA, de Sousa AR, de Araújo TME, Camargo ELS, Oriá MOB, Craveiro I, de Araújo TM, Mendes IAC, Ventura CAA, Sousa I, de Oliveira RM, Simão M, Fronteira I. Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Portuguese-Speaking Countries: A Structural Equations Modeling Approach. Vaccines. 2021; 9(10):1167. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101167

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Sousa, Álvaro F.L., Jules R.B. Teixeira, Iracema Lua, Fernanda de Oliveira Souza, Andrêa J.F. Ferreira, Guilherme Schneider, Herica E.F. de Carvalho, Layze B. de Oliveira, Shirley V.M.A. Lima, Anderson R. de Sousa, Telma M.E. de Araújo, Emerson L.S. Camargo, Mônica O.B. Oriá, Isabel Craveiro, Tânia M. de Araújo, Isabel A.C. Mendes, Carla A.A. Ventura, Isabel Sousa, Rodrigo M. de Oliveira, Manuel Simão, and Inês Fronteira. 2021. "Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Portuguese-Speaking Countries: A Structural Equations Modeling Approach" Vaccines 9, no. 10: 1167. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101167

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