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Review

Virus-like Particle Vaccines: A Prospective Panacea Against an Avian Influenza Panzootic

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna 800241, Nigeria
3
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
4
Laboratory of Vaccine and Biomolecules, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
6
The Pirbright Institute, Woking GU24 0NF, UK
7
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040694
Received: 2 September 2020 / Revised: 12 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Vaccines Based on Virus-Like Particles)
Epizootics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have resulted in the deaths of millions of birds leading to huge financial losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The roles of migratory wild birds in the harbouring, mutation, and transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), and the lack of broad-spectrum prophylactic vaccines present imminent threats of a global panzootic. To prevent this, control measures that include effective AIV surveillance programmes, treatment regimens, and universal vaccines are being developed and analysed for their effectiveness. We reviewed the epidemiology of AIVs with regards to past avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in birds. The AIV surveillance programmes in wild and domestic birds, as well as their roles in AI control were also evaluated. We discussed the limitations of the currently used AI vaccines, which necessitated the development of a universal vaccine. We evaluated the current development of AI vaccines based upon virus-like particles (VLPs), particularly those displaying the matrix-2 ectodomain (M2e) peptide. Finally, we highlighted the prospects of these VLP vaccines as universal vaccines with the potential of preventing an AI panzootic. View Full-Text
Keywords: avian influenza; surveillance; avian influenza vaccine; VLP vaccine; M2e; veterinary avian influenza vaccine; universal influenza vaccines avian influenza; surveillance; avian influenza vaccine; VLP vaccine; M2e; veterinary avian influenza vaccine; universal influenza vaccines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ninyio, N.N.; Ho, K.L.; Omar, A.R.; Tan, W.S.; Iqbal, M.; Mariatulqabtiah, A.R. Virus-like Particle Vaccines: A Prospective Panacea Against an Avian Influenza Panzootic. Vaccines 2020, 8, 694. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040694

AMA Style

Ninyio NN, Ho KL, Omar AR, Tan WS, Iqbal M, Mariatulqabtiah AR. Virus-like Particle Vaccines: A Prospective Panacea Against an Avian Influenza Panzootic. Vaccines. 2020; 8(4):694. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040694

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ninyio, Nathaniel N.; Ho, Kok L.; Omar, Abdul R.; Tan, Wen S.; Iqbal, Munir; Mariatulqabtiah, Abdul R. 2020. "Virus-like Particle Vaccines: A Prospective Panacea Against an Avian Influenza Panzootic" Vaccines 8, no. 4: 694. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040694

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