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Open AccessArticle

Pullulan-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine Delivery

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
2
Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
3
School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
4
Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
5
School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040651
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 3 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Candidates against Tropical Diseases)
Vaccines against blood-stage malaria often aim to induce antibodies to neutralize parasite entry into red blood cells, interferon gamma (IFNγ) produced by T helper 1 (Th1) CD4+ T cells or interleukin 4 (IL-4) produced by T helper 2 (Th2) cells to provide B cell help. One vaccine delivery method for suitable putative malaria protein antigens is the use of nanoparticles as vaccine carriers. It has been previously shown that antigen conjugated to inorganic nanoparticles in the viral-particle size range (~40–60 nm) can induce protective antibodies and T cells against malaria antigens in a rodent malaria challenge model. Herein, it is shown that biodegradable pullulan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (pIONPs) can be synthesized in this same size range. The pIONPs are non-toxic and do not induce conventional pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo. We show that murine blood-stage antigen MSP4/5 from Plasmodium yoelii could be chemically conjugated to pIONPs and the use of these conjugates as immunogens led to the induction of both specific antibodies and IFNγ CD4+ T cells reactive to MSP4/5 in mice, comparable to responses to MSP4/5 mixed with classical adjuvants (e.g., CpG or Alum) that preferentially induce Th1 or Th2 cells individually. These results suggest that biodegradable pIONPs warrant further exploration as carriers for developing blood-stage malaria vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood-stage malaria; vaccines; MSP4/5; biodegradable; iron oxide; nanoparticles; CD4+ T cells; antibodies blood-stage malaria; vaccines; MSP4/5; biodegradable; iron oxide; nanoparticles; CD4+ T cells; antibodies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Powles, L.; Wilson, K.L.; Xiang, S.D.; Coppel, R.L.; Ma, C.; Selomulya, C.; Plebanski, M. Pullulan-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine Delivery. Vaccines 2020, 8, 651. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040651

AMA Style

Powles L, Wilson KL, Xiang SD, Coppel RL, Ma C, Selomulya C, Plebanski M. Pullulan-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine Delivery. Vaccines. 2020; 8(4):651. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040651

Chicago/Turabian Style

Powles, Liam; Wilson, Kirsty L.; Xiang, Sue D.; Coppel, Ross L.; Ma, Charles; Selomulya, Cordelia; Plebanski, Magdalena. 2020. "Pullulan-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine Delivery" Vaccines 8, no. 4: 651. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040651

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