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Open AccessArticle

The Association between Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations and SARS-Cov-2 Infection: Data from the EPICOVID19 Web-Based Survey

1
National Research Council-Neuroscience Institute, Aging Branch, Via Vincenzo Maria Gallucci 16, 35128 Padova, Italy
2
Geriatric Unit, Department of Medicine (DIMED), University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy
3
Unit of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Biomedical Campus of Rome, via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome, Italy
4
Geriatric Intensive Care Medicine, University of Florence and Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Viale Peraccini 18, 50139 Florence, Italy
5
National Research Council-Institute of Biomedical Technologies, Epidemiology Unit, Via Fratelli Cervi 93, 20090 Segrate, Italy
6
Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences L. Sacco, Università di Milano, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, 20157 Milan, Italy
7
National Research Council-Institute of Clinical Physiology, Epidemiology and Health Research Laboratory, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
8
National Research Council-Institute of Clinical Physiology, Department of Environmental Epidemiology and Disease registries, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
9
Public Health and Infectious Disease Department, “Sapienza” University, Piazzale Aldo Moro 1, 00185 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030471
Received: 6 August 2020 / Revised: 20 August 2020 / Accepted: 21 August 2020 / Published: 23 August 2020
The present study aims to evaluate whether influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are associated with positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) testing to detect SARS-CoV-2. Data from the Italian cross-sectional web-based survey (EPICOVID19), based on a self-selection sample of individuals aged ≥18, were considered. The probability of a positive SARS-CoV-2 NPS test result as a function of influenza or anti-pneumococcal vaccination was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying analysis by age (<65 years, ≥65 years). From April 2020, 170,731 individuals aged <65 years and 28,097 ≥65 years filled out the EPICOVID19 questionnaire. Influenza and anti-pneumococcal vaccinations were received, respectively, by 16% and 2% of those <65 years, and by 53% and 13% of those ≥65 years. SARS-CoV-2 NPS testing was reported by 6680 participants. Anti-pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations were associated with a decreased probability of a SARS-CoV-2 NPS positive test in the younger participants (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91; OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.98; respectively). A significantly lower probability of a positive test result was detected in the individuals ≥65 years who received anti-pneumococcal vaccination (OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.33–0.95). These results need to be confirmed by further investigations, but they are relevant given the probable coexistence of influenza, bacterial infections, and COVID-19 over the coming autumn–winter season. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; web-based survey; nasopharyngeal swab testing; influenza vaccination; pneumococcal vaccination SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; web-based survey; nasopharyngeal swab testing; influenza vaccination; pneumococcal vaccination
MDPI and ACS Style

Noale, M.; Trevisan, C.; Maggi, S.; Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Pedone, C.; Di Bari, M.; Adorni, F.; Jesuthasan, N.; Sojic, A.; Galli, M.; Giacomelli, A.; Molinaro, S.; Bianchi, F.; Mastroianni, C.; Prinelli, F.; Group, O.E.W. The Association between Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations and SARS-Cov-2 Infection: Data from the EPICOVID19 Web-Based Survey. Vaccines 2020, 8, 471.

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