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Open AccessArticle

Rapid Quantification of SARS-CoV-2-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Propagation-Defective Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotypes

1
Institut für Virologie und Immunologie (IVI), Abteilung Virologie, CH-3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland
2
Department for Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany
3
Institut für Laboratoriums- und Transfusionsmedizin, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum Nordrhein- Westfalen, Universitätsklinik der Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-32545 Bad Oeynhausen, Germany
4
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Essen, CH-45147 Essen, Germany
5
Institute of Clinical Hygiene, Medical Microbiology and Infectiology, General Hospital Nürnberg, Paracelsus Medical University, D-90419 Nürnberg, Germany
6
Department of Infectious Diseases, West German Centre of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45147 Essen, Germany
7
Institute for Virology, University Hospital of Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45147 Essen, Germany
8
Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP), Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030386
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 12 July 2020 / Published: 15 July 2020
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2, a new member of the genus Betacoronavirus, is a pandemic virus, which has caused numerous fatalities, particularly in the elderly and persons with underlying morbidities. At present, there are no approved vaccines nor antiviral therapies available. The detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies plays a crucial role in the assessment of the immune status of convalescent COVID-19 patients, evaluation of recombinant therapeutic antibodies, and the evaluation of novel vaccines. To detect SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies, classically, a virus-neutralization test has to be performed at biosafety level 3, considerably limiting the general use of this test. In the present work, a biosafety level 1 pseudotype virus assay based on a propagation-incompetent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been used to determine the neutralizing antibody titers in convalescent COVID-19 patients. The neutralization titers in serum of two independently analyzed patient cohorts were available within 18 h and correlated well with those obtained with a classical SARS-CoV-2 neutralization test (Pearson correlation coefficients of r = 0.929 and r = 0.939, respectively). Most convalescent COVID-19 patients had only low titers of neutralizing antibodies (ND50 < 320). The sera of convalescent COVID-19 patients also neutralized pseudotype virus displaying the SARS-CoV-1 spike protein on their surface, which is homologous to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. In summary, we report a robust virus-neutralization assay, which can be used at low biosafety level 1 to rapidly quantify SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in convalescent COVID-19 patients and vaccinated individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; neutralizing antibodies; pseudovirus; vaccine; passive immunization SARS-CoV-2; neutralizing antibodies; pseudovirus; vaccine; passive immunization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zettl, F.; Meister, T.L.; Vollmer, T.; Fischer, B.; Steinmann, J.; Krawczyk, A.; V’kovski, P.; Todt, D.; Steinmann, E.; Pfaender, S.; Zimmer, G. Rapid Quantification of SARS-CoV-2-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Propagation-Defective Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotypes. Vaccines 2020, 8, 386. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030386

AMA Style

Zettl F, Meister TL, Vollmer T, Fischer B, Steinmann J, Krawczyk A, V’kovski P, Todt D, Steinmann E, Pfaender S, Zimmer G. Rapid Quantification of SARS-CoV-2-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Propagation-Defective Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotypes. Vaccines. 2020; 8(3):386. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030386

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zettl, Ferdinand; Meister, Toni L.; Vollmer, Tanja; Fischer, Bastian; Steinmann, Jörg; Krawczyk, Adalbert; V’kovski, Philip; Todt, Daniel; Steinmann, Eike; Pfaender, Stephanie; Zimmer, Gert. 2020. "Rapid Quantification of SARS-CoV-2-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Propagation-Defective Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotypes" Vaccines 8, no. 3: 386. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030386

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