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Article

Strategies to Improve Vaccination among At-Risk Adults and the Elderly in Italy

1
Section of Hygiene, Department of Life Sciences and Public Health; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
2
VIHTALI (Value In Health Technology and Academy for Leadership & Innovation), Spin-Off of Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Pneumological Sciences, Section of Pneumology, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy
4
Regional Health Unit ASUR AV 3, Sanitary District of Macerata, 62100 Macerata, Italy
5
UOC Direzione Sanitaria S. Spirito e Nuovo Regina Margherita, Local Health Unit ASL RM1, 00193 Rome, Italy
6
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy
7
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, 06132 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030358
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 26 June 2020 / Accepted: 1 July 2020 / Published: 4 July 2020
The World Health Organization (WHO), the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the European Center for Disease Control (ECDC), and the immunization guidelines of many countries issue vaccination recommendations for adults and the elderly. However, the uptake of vaccination in these groups is generally low due to several reasons. The present study aimed to identify strategies implemented in Italy in unconventional settings to promote vaccination against influenza, pneumococcal, and herpes zoster virus (HZV) infections among these subjects, i.e., the at-risk adult population and the elderly. We conducted a literature review and a survey of experts. The literature search yielded seven strategies; all of these concerned influenza vaccination, while three also addressed pneumococcal and HZV vaccination. The survey of experts identified 15 strategies; 10 regarded influenza vaccination, while four regarded pneumococcal vaccination and one regarded HZV vaccination. Most of the strategies were implemented in hospital clinics and rest homes. Regarding influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations, the target population mainly comprised at-risk adults, while the elderly represented the main target population for HZV vaccination. Our results show that, in Italy, there are initiatives aimed at promoting vaccination in unconventional settings, but further efforts are required to assess their effectiveness and to further extend them. View Full-Text
Keywords: HZV vaccination; influenza vaccination; pneumococcal vaccination; immunization strategies; elderly HZV vaccination; influenza vaccination; pneumococcal vaccination; immunization strategies; elderly
MDPI and ACS Style

Calabrò, G.E.; Tognetto, A.; Carini, E.; Mancinelli, S.; Sarnari, L.; Colamesta, V.; Ricciardi, W.; de Waure, C. Strategies to Improve Vaccination among At-Risk Adults and the Elderly in Italy. Vaccines 2020, 8, 358. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030358

AMA Style

Calabrò GE, Tognetto A, Carini E, Mancinelli S, Sarnari L, Colamesta V, Ricciardi W, de Waure C. Strategies to Improve Vaccination among At-Risk Adults and the Elderly in Italy. Vaccines. 2020; 8(3):358. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030358

Chicago/Turabian Style

Calabrò, Giovanna E.; Tognetto, Alessia; Carini, Elettra; Mancinelli, Silvia; Sarnari, Laura; Colamesta, Vittoria; Ricciardi, Walter; de Waure, Chiara. 2020. "Strategies to Improve Vaccination among At-Risk Adults and the Elderly in Italy" Vaccines 8, no. 3: 358. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030358

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