Next Article in Journal
IFN-I Independent Antiviral Immune Response to Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Challenge in Mouse Brain
Previous Article in Journal
Liver Stiffness Hinders Normalization of Systemic Inflammation and Endothelial Activation after Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Eradication in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influenza Anti-Stalk Antibodies: Development of a New Method for the Evaluation of the Immune Responses to Universal Vaccine
Open AccessArticle

Immunogenicity Measures of Influenza Vaccines: A Study of 1164 Registered Clinical Trials

1
Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena (SI), Italy
2
Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Pastore 1, 16132 Genova (GE), Italy
3
Section of Hygiene, Institute of Public Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
4
VisMederi srl, Strada del Petriccio e Belriguardo 35, 53100 Siena (SI), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020325
Received: 27 May 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress on Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Vaccines)
Influenza carries an enormous burden each year. Annual influenza vaccination is the best means of reducing this burden. To be clinically effective, influenza vaccines must be immunogenic, and several immunological assays to test their immunogenicity have been developed. This study aimed to describe the patterns of use of the various immunological assays available to measure the influenza vaccine-induced adaptive immune response and to determine its correlates of protection. A total of 76.5% of the studies included in our analysis measured only the humoral immune response. Among these, the hemagglutination-inhibition assay was by far the most widely used. Other, less common, humoral immune response assays were: virus neutralization (21.7%), enzyme-linked immunosorbent (10.1%), single radial hemolysis (4.6%), and assays able to quantify anti-neuraminidase antibodies (1.7%). By contrast, cell-mediated immunity was quantified in only 23.5% of studies. Several variables were significantly associated with the use of single assays. Specifically, some influenza vaccine types (e.g., adjuvanted, live attenuated and cell culture-derived or recombinant), study phase and study sponsorship pattern were usually found to be statistically significant predictors. We discuss the principal findings and make some suggestions from the point of view of the various stakeholders. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; vaccines; vaccination; influenza vaccines; immunogenicity; correlates of protection; humoral immune response; cellular immune response influenza; vaccines; vaccination; influenza vaccines; immunogenicity; correlates of protection; humoral immune response; cellular immune response
MDPI and ACS Style

Domnich, A.; Manini, I.; Panatto, D.; Calabrò, G.E.; Montomoli, E. Immunogenicity Measures of Influenza Vaccines: A Study of 1164 Registered Clinical Trials. Vaccines 2020, 8, 325.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop