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Open AccessArticle

Differential Immune Transcriptome and Modulated Signalling Pathways in Rainbow Trout Infected with Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV) and Its Derivative Non-Virion (NV) Gene Deleted

1
Ocular Genomics Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
2
Department of Biotechnology, National Agricultural and Food Research and Technology Institute (INIA), 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010058
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 27 January 2020 / Published: 30 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines against RNA Viruses)
Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is one of the worst viral threats to fish farming. Non-virion (NV) gene-deleted VHSV (dNV-VHSV) has been postulated as an attenuated virus, because the absence of the NV gene leads to lower induced pathogenicity. However, little is known about the immune responses driven by dNV-VHSV and the wild-type (wt)-VHSV in the context of infection. Here, we obtained the immune transcriptome profiling in trout infected with dNV-VHSV and wt-VHSV and the pathways involved in immune responses. As general results, dNV-VHSV upregulated more trout immune genes than wt-VHSV (65.6% vs 45.7%, respectively), whereas wt-VHSV maintained more non-regulated genes than dNV-VHSV (45.7% vs 14.6%, respectively). The modulated pathways analysis (Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis, GSEA) showed that, when compared to wt-VHSV infected trout, the dNV-VHSV infected trout upregulated signalling pathways (n = 19) such as RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I) like receptor signalling, Toll-like receptor signalling, type II interferon signalling, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) signalling, among others. The results from individual genes and GSEA demonstrated that wt-VHSV impaired the activation at short stages of infection of pro-inflammatory, antiviral, proliferation, and apoptosis pathways, delaying innate humoral response and cellular crosstalk, whereas dNV-VHSV promoted the opposite effects. Therefore, these results might support future studies on using dNV-VHSV as a potential live vaccine. View Full-Text
Keywords: VHSV; non-virion (NV); transcriptome profiling; rainbow trout; immune pathways VHSV; non-virion (NV); transcriptome profiling; rainbow trout; immune pathways
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Chinchilla, B.; Encinas, P.; Coll, J.M.; Gomez-Casado, E. Differential Immune Transcriptome and Modulated Signalling Pathways in Rainbow Trout Infected with Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV) and Its Derivative Non-Virion (NV) Gene Deleted. Vaccines 2020, 8, 58.

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