Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Simultaneous Administration of Recombinant Measles Viruses Expressing Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion (F) and Nucleo (N) Proteins Induced Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Cotton Rats
Previous Article in Journal
Pneumococcal Vaccines: Challenges and Prospects
Previous Article in Special Issue
Epitope-Specific Serological Assays for RSV: Conformation Matters
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Vaccines 2019, 7(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010026

Will Attention by Vaccine Developers to the Host’s Nuclear Hormone Levels and Immunocompetence Improve Vaccine Success?

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
2
Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
3
The Hartwell Center for Bioinformatics & Biotechnology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
4
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines for Respiratory Syncytial Virus)
Full-Text   |   PDF [538 KB, uploaded 27 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

Despite extraordinary advances in fields of immunology and infectious diseases, vaccine development remains a challenge. The development of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine, for example, has spanned more than 50 years of research with studies of more than 100 vaccine candidates. Dozens of attractive vaccine products have entered clinical trials, but none have completed the path to licensing. Human immunodeficiency virus vaccine development has proven equally difficult, as there is no licensed product after more than 30 years of pre-clinical and clinical research. Here, we examine vaccine development with attention to the host. We discuss how nuclear hormones, including vitamins and sex hormones, can influence responses to vaccines. We show how nuclear hormones interact with regulatory elements of immunoglobulin gene loci and how the deletion of estrogen response elements from gene enhancers will alter patterns of antibody isotype expression. Based on these findings, and findings that nuclear hormone levels are often insufficient or deficient among individuals in both developed and developing countries, we suggest that failed vaccine studies may in some cases reflect weaknesses of the host rather than the product. We encourage analyses of nuclear hormone levels and immunocompetence among study participants in clinical trials to ensure the success of future vaccine programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: estrogen; vitamin A; vitamin D; nuclear hormone; nuclear hormone receptors; response elements; immunoglobulin heavy chain locus; antibody isotypes estrogen; vitamin A; vitamin D; nuclear hormone; nuclear hormone receptors; response elements; immunoglobulin heavy chain locus; antibody isotypes
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sealy, R.E.; Jones, B.G.; Surman, S.L.; Penkert, R.R.; Pelletier, S.; Neale, G.; Hurwitz, J.L. Will Attention by Vaccine Developers to the Host’s Nuclear Hormone Levels and Immunocompetence Improve Vaccine Success? Vaccines 2019, 7, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Vaccines EISSN 2076-393X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top