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Vaccines 2018, 6(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6030045

Why Is Eradicating Typhoid Fever So Challenging: Implications for Vaccine and Therapeutic Design

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
These authors are equal contributors to this review article.
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Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Vaccines Against Chronic and Persistent Bacterial Infections)
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Abstract

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and S. Paratyphi, namely typhoidal Salmonellae, are the cause of (para) typhoid fever, which is a devastating systemic infectious disease in humans. In addition, the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S. Typhi in many low and middle-income countries poses a significant risk to human health. While currently available typhoid vaccines and therapeutics are efficacious, they have some limitations. One important limitation is the lack of controlling individuals who chronically carry S. Typhi. However, due to the strict host specificity of S. Typhi to humans, S. Typhi research is hampered. As a result, our understanding of S. Typhi pathogenesis is incomplete, thereby delaying the development and improvement of prevention and treatment strategies. Nonetheless, to better combat and contain S. Typhi, it is vital to develop a vaccine and therapy for controlling both acutely and chronically infected individuals. This review discusses how scientists are trying to combat typhoid fever, why it is so challenging to do so, which approaches show promise, and what we know about the pathogenesis of S. Typhi chronic infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella Typhi; typhoidal Salmonellae; virulence; typhoid fever; vaccines; healthy carriers; chronic infections Salmonella Typhi; typhoidal Salmonellae; virulence; typhoid fever; vaccines; healthy carriers; chronic infections
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Yang, Y.-A.; Chong, A.; Song, J. Why Is Eradicating Typhoid Fever So Challenging: Implications for Vaccine and Therapeutic Design. Vaccines 2018, 6, 45.

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